Why The First Computers Were Made Out Of Light Bulbs 

Abone ol 15 Mn
görünümler 4,7 Mn
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Lightbulbs might be the best idea ever - just not for light. Head to brilliant.org/veritasium to start your free 30-day trial, and the first 200 people get 20% off an annual premium subscription.
A huge thanks to David Lovett for showing me his awesome relay and vacuum tube based computers. Check out his TRvid channel @UsagiElectric
Herring, C., & Nichols, M. H. (1949). Thermionic emission. Reviews of modern physics, 21(2), 185. - ve42.co/Herring1949
Goldstine, H. H., & Goldstine, A. (1946). The electronic numerical integrator and computer (eniac). Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to Computation, 2(15), 97-110. - ve42.co/ENIAC
Shannon, C. E. (1938). A symbolic analysis of relay and switching circuits. Electrical Engineering, 57(12), 713-723. - ve42.co/Shannon38
Boole, G. (1847). The mathematical analysis of logic. Philosophical Library. - ve42.co/Boole1847
The world’s first general purpose computer turns 75 - ve42.co/ENIAC2
Dylla, H. F., & Corneliussen, S. T. (2005). John Ambrose Fleming and the beginning of electronics. Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology A: Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films, 23(4), 1244-1251. - ve42.co/Dylla2005
Stibitz, G. R. (1980). Early computers. In A History of Computing in the Twentieth Century (pp. 479-483). Academic Press.
ENIAC’s Hydrogen Bomb Calculations - ve42.co/ENIAC3
Special thanks to our Patreon supporters:
Emil Abu Milad, Tj Steyn, meg noah, Bernard McGee, KeyWestr, Amadeo Bee, TTST, Balkrishna Heroor, John H. Austin, Jr., john kiehl, Anton Ragin, Benedikt Heinen, Diffbot, Gnare, Dave Kircher, Burt Humburg, Blake Byers, Evgeny Skvortsov, Meekay, Bill Linder, Paul Peijzel, Josh Hibschman, Mac Malkawi, Juan Benet, Ubiquity Ventures, Richard Sundvall, Lee Redden, Stephen Wilcox, Marinus Kuivenhoven, Michael Krugman, Cy ‘kkm’ K’Nelson, Sam Lutfi.
Written by Petr Lebedev, Derek Muller and Kovi Rose
Edited by Trenton Oliver
Animated by Mike Radjabov, Ivy Tello and Fabio Albertelli
Filmed by Derek Muller & Raquel Nuno
Additional video/photos supplied by Getty Images & Pond5
Music from Epidemic Sound
Produced by Derek Muller, Petr Lebedev, & Emily Zhang
Thumbnail by Ignat Berbeci



22 Şub 2024




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@uiouio1891 9 aylar önce
Light bulbs were such a good idea, they became the symbol for good ideas
@geoquerry 9 aylar önce
🤣🤣🤣 that's cool
@Rory626 9 aylar önce
Galaxy brain comment
@yuanwang9324 9 aylar önce
here before 10k likes
@octogintillion 9 aylar önce
@Noname-cp3zm 9 aylar önce
Copied comment
@CrippledMerc 9 aylar önce
This makes me think about the people who built calculators and computers in Minecraft using the in-game “electricity” system called Redstone. It started as just making switches that could automatically open doors when you hit a button or stepped on a pressure plate to trigger it, but it eventually grew into more and more complicated electric systems until people eventually built calculators and even computers in the game. I remember seeing a video where someone built a computer in Minecraft that was running Minecraft itself in a scaled down version, on a screen made of Minecraft blocks. Someone even built a computer that was able to connect to the internet and they were able to order a pizza through the game that then was delivered to their house. I’m sure by now people have built huge and even more complex computing systems in the game and I have no idea what their capabilities even are at this point.
@TheOriginalMacOS 8 aylar önce
the pizza thing was a mod called web displays. you cant connect to the internet using minecraft redstone
@CrippledMerc 8 aylar önce
@@TheOriginalMacOS I’m aware they can’t connect directly to the internet through in-game stuff alone, but they still had to build the thing in the game to interface with it.
@TheOriginalMacOS 8 aylar önce
@@CrippledMerc it was just a portal frame thing, it was just like lighting a nether portal, the mod was what did the web browser
@CrippledMerc 8 aylar önce
@@TheOriginalMacOS Pretty sure in the video I saw years ago they built a computer in game that used the mod to show the web browser and connect to the internet.
@tomlewis4205 7 aylar önce
@gkossatzgmxde 4 aylar önce
The Z3 was a German electromechanical computer designed by Konrad Zuse in 1938, and completed in 1941. It was the world's first working programmable, fully automatic digital computer. The Z3 was built with 2,600 relays, implementing a 22-bit word length that operated at a clock frequency of about 5-10 Hz.
@myid9876543 2 aylar önce
The Japanese also developed a relay computer very early on
@bsadewitz 2 aylar önce
​@@myid9876543IIRC the Japanese one is the most advanced relay computer ever produced.
@scopestacker9787 4 gün önce
But not Turing complete
@swiftmatic 5 aylar önce
I was a kid when solid-state electronics were replacing vacuum tubes in consumer products. I remember that radio and TV repair was a widespread cottage industry. The best in that field were able to adapt and stay afloat, until the advent of integrated circuits.Great video 👍👍
@TomLeg 4 aylar önce
I enjoyed taking the back off our television, gathering all the tubes, and going down to the drug store to test them on the tube tester ... even when the tv was working fine.
@terryscott5568 4 gün önce
If you could repair a TV you could work for a big name company going to hospitals installing, repairing and maintaining high end medical x-ray. You were a hero and even the Doctors worshiped you. We were networking image transfers before they knew what to call it. We could do 3D imaging using analog video. You got the image in a day or two because computers were too slow. CT, computed tomography was invented by an engineer that worked at the EMI recording studios. Then the companies handed out laptops and said figure it out. Dial up. The blood ran despite how hard we tried to reprogram those folks. Now the software and every other kind of repair are two disciplines. Benjamin Franklin was your last renascence man that could know enough of everything to function in any subject. Its only going to get worse. How long before you ask your computer "Whats wrong?' A you have to decide if you can trust it. I'm hanging on by my finger nails.
@tobiaschristo 6 aylar önce
Dude, I’ve watched so many of your videos, and you are one of my absolute favorite channels on TRvid. Your team does such an amazing job between research, writing, producing, editing, etc… Veritasium makes GREAT content! Please keep doing what you’re doing! Thanks!
@cheeseburger9363 6 aylar önce
@tjparisien2437 2 aylar önce
@BobRoss4Life 5 gün önce
@nolenrobinson8900 4 gün önce
@alexcrouse 8 aylar önce
So glad to see David getting attention for his awesome work!
@nysaea 7 aylar önce
Same, I did NOT expect this collab! This is great!
@Life_42 9 aylar önce
My mind is constantly blown how far humans have come in the last 100 years. Edit: Great to see awesome comments here. The goal is to become a peaceful species to explore the cosmos. Let's overcome the great filter!
@salwaabusaad9819 9 aylar önce
Same 😅
@spontaneousbootay 9 aylar önce
Thats the power of communication
@Dont_Read_My_Picture 9 aylar önce
Don't read my name!...
@HowDoYouUseSpaceBar 9 aylar önce
@@Dont_Read_My_Picture 100 years of progress and we end up with *this*
@Fantastic_Mr_Fox 9 aylar önce
It's comforting to know that for 99% of the problems humanity faces today, an amelioration or even a straight fix is due in the next century. Really makes you optimistic for the future. Do not quote me on that number ;)
@Deathbyfartz 8 aylar önce
always found early breadboards extremely fascinating. as someone who repairs electrical devices daily, and is used to circuit boards, i really appreciate all the work that went into old circuitry with vacuum tubes, and electromechanical engineering, the best days are the days i get a old appliance from before i was even thought of.
@chriscockrell9495 Aylar önce
Relays are pretty cool. Model K for kitchen. I love it. Edison effect - anode type observation in a cathode Fleming effect - Thermionic Diode - add an anode Triode - added a grid between the 2 which provided switching control (transistor) and amplification. Vacuum tube triode Eniac (computer) Jacquard Loom Colossus Z3 - Zuse
@werwerwer60 3 aylar önce
No mention to Konrad Zuse? He did even relay computers with floating point numbers. See the Z2 from 1940 and Z3 1938-1941. He made the Z1 mechanical computer in 1936-1938.
@slevinchannel7589 12 saatler önce
Lets say im Timetraveler: How do i BEST explain the Ancient-People (lets say Medival Times) the Concept? Not the Details, but the Concept
@hydraali7 8 aylar önce
I am full heartedly waiting for part 2 ❤ such a nice video explaining a lot in just 18 mins, What a context and way of explaining and how much one could understand and gain knowledge from these 18 mins instead of watching brain rotting reels, I have been searching for such a video on this topic from a long time. I can write a book on this but I don't got time and no one got to care 😊
@dancararg 8 aylar önce
I cannot express with words how much I needed to see all these things put in context that teachers and mentors have mentioned to me so many times too sparsely. Priceless. Thank you.
@hydraali7 8 aylar önce
@JonLusk 9 aylar önce
As a Computer Engineer, I would like to thank you for illuminating the origins of my profession. This was an exceptional, historical documentary.
@pepesreal 9 aylar önce
You’re welcome
@scrible1073 9 aylar önce
Eyyyy illuminating! I get the joke! HAHAHA
@frostfamily5321 9 aylar önce
What would also be illuminating is if you explain the quantum physics of transistors and maybe even laser keyboards!
@aniksamiurrahman6365 9 aylar önce
I, personally think, a better origin of computer and automation can be found in Looms, specially Jaquered looms. And I'll also advise u to not take Veritassium seriously. I mean not even as a good entertainment.
@JonLusk 9 aylar önce
@@frostfamily5321 It doesn't take quantum physics to explain the operation of a transistor. Someone well-versed in quantum physics might have something to add to the conversation, but the operation is currently well understood.
@coldfisao 8 aylar önce
Absolument incroyable la manière dont vous avez réussi à condenser cette évolution complexe en une vidéo de moins de 20 minutes. Merci beaucoup, vous contribuez magnifiquement à enrichir nos connaissances avec chacune de vos contributions
@danieleascione 8 aylar önce
Translation: Absolutely incredible the way you managed to condense such a complex evolution in a video less than 20 minutes long. Thank you so much, you contribute beautifully to enriching our knowledge with each one of your contributions.
@MarvinHartmann452 4 aylar önce
Oui c'est vrai. J'aimerais qu'il y ait une traduction de ce vidéo en français et allemand pour le montrer à mes proches. Je suis un technicien en électronique depuis 45 ans et quand j'essaie de leur expliquer c'est très rare qu'ils comprennent.
@kestralrider313 9 aylar önce
I love your videos;I complely geeked out and lost track of time watching this one. A a mechanical engineer, I was aware of most of the technologies by themselves, but the way you put it all into a chronologically order and narratived the key milestones of what lead to what made for a very interesting story.
@davidfaraday7963 8 aylar önce
I'm disappointed that you made no mention of Colossus. It may not have been a programmable computer, but it was an electronic logic machine that used thousands of vacuum tubes to statistically analyse encrypted teleprinter messages at a very high speed. It came into service a whole year before Eniac and it made a very significant contribution to the success of the invasion of occupied France in June 1944.
@PaulLemars01 7 aylar önce
It was programmable.
@davidfaraday7963 7 aylar önce
@@PaulLemars01 It was a special-purpose machine built to do one job and one job only.
@Kellysg126 7 aylar önce
Im very glad someone has mentioned colossus as i feel alot of history is "america washed" which is quite upsetting to see.
@gustcles22 7 aylar önce
Atanasoff-Berry computer out-dates them both
@davidfaraday7963 7 aylar önce
@@gustcles22 Thanks for drawing my attention to this, I'd not hears of it before.
@egerlachca 7 aylar önce
I loved this video. I didn't know half of what you taught about the history of the triode. My one complaint is that the British Colossus Mark I predated ENIAC by 2 years, though it was kept classified for another 50+ so it isn't as widely known. Would love to see a video from you about Enigma, Colossus, and all the math and science that went into WWII codebreaking.
@TristanCleveland 6 aylar önce
Yes! Please a video on WWII codebreaking and how it led to the invention of the computer!
@lidianemonteiro7168 6 aylar önce
@simongrimmett1 5 aylar önce
Please, would love to see that!
@1pcfred 5 aylar önce
Colossus could only perform one task. It was not a general purpose programmable computer. The Brits certainly understood the theory of computers. They were just too bloody poor to actually build one. Which is why the Americans were first.
@yogibarista2818 Gün önce
Colossus certainly predated ENIAC as a vacuum-tube computer, but was a single purpose (decoding German Lorenz cipher) and not otherwise comparable.
@awacsmye3 8 aylar önce
I found it fascinating back in the early 2000s when I worked on C-130 aircraft that still utilized vacuum tubes in the compass amplifiers for the navigation system. Your explanation of how they amplify signals, like earth's magnetic field, helped close the gap on my understanding of that navigation system. Those airplanes used a device called a Magnetic Azimuth Detector in the wing tips or in the top of the vertical stabilizer to sense magnetic heading and transmitted a very low voltage signal to the navigation computers for heading reference. Before the signal could be utilized effectively, though, it had to be amplified. Enter the humble light bulb 💡
@38911bytefree 8 aylar önce
Some FM transmite still using 1KW tubes as output. Tubes still good on RF applications.
@richvandervecken3954 8 aylar önce
The first production C-130A came off the production line in 1955. I know they have had several upgrades to the airframe and systems over the years but it still amazes me that a plane designed and built in the 1950's is still in service today. The B-52 is another plane that still in service that was first built in the 1950's. I worked in PMEL witch was renamed TMDE when I was in the U.S.A.F. and I was shocked by how many pieces of test equipment we had in Germany that were built in the 1950's and 1960's and used vacuum tubes and all the wires used silver solder on ceramic bus strips for connection points. I was over there from 1982 to 1984. I was surprised when the government decided to make all the military calibration labs totally civilian contractor jobs in the 1990's.
@michaeledwards2251 4 aylar önce
One of the reasons for retaining valves was resistance to emp.
@rogerphelps9939 4 aylar önce
Field effect transistors are the solid state analogue of the thermionic valve. I wonder if, for very high temperature applications in the vacuum of space, very tiny valves, without envelopes, might make a comeback.
@michaeledwards2251 4 aylar önce
@@rogerphelps9939 The idea has definitely been investigated. The main problem being launch shock.
@zezhyrule3 9 aylar önce
I've lived my whole life hearing about vacuum tubes and never really knowing how they work. This was an amazing presentation connecting lightbulbs to transistors. I'm stunned.
@simonhenry7867 9 aylar önce
Everyone understands mechanical computers, then school skips vacuum tubes because we don't use them anymore, and jumps to digital circuits, honestly if I had this video I would prob have got digiy
@@simonhenry7867 Agreed. I know vacuum tubes was the predecessor of the transistor and functioned very similarly, but never know how it works.
@ComputersAndLife 9 aylar önce
If you've ever gotten into guitar amps, you'll still hear people say that tube amps sound warmer. Still plenty of people using tubes. Tubes are still often the best way to amplify very high wattage radio signals.
@abhishekkushwaha3462 9 aylar önce
I think if you really want to understand something well, just start from its origin.. go to its history.
@HereToSin 9 aylar önce
@@abhishekkushwaha3462 Truly outstanding point! Personally found this method of finding out 'how or why was this thing invented in the first place?' really great approach to learning many new topics!
@ojbeez5260 3 aylar önce
this has to be one of the most underrated videos on YT....amazing when you think about it! YT and entirety of modern life inc. social media would not be possible without it!
@sysbofh 8 aylar önce
There are several great TRvid channels, but Veritasium always - and I mean ALWAYS - delivers! It is amazing how he can make videos of such different subjects, and are always on point! Never dull, never stretched out, never compromising. A real gem this channel.
@w2tty 7 aylar önce
Very well done. As someone totally interested in vacuum tubes, radios and computers, you linked it all together in a way that my family can understand. I look forward to the next part, where you connect it to semiconductors and transistors (fingers crossed)!
@sivavenkateshr 9 aylar önce
I've heard about vacuum tubes, never thought it was a successor of light bulb. The evolution is so amazing and the way it is articulated in the video is so interesting and shows a lots of work had put into this video. Thank you Derek.
@wellingtonbruh3756 8 aylar önce
As a computer nerd, this video is fascinating and beautiful. I love how I could see the connection from a light bulb to a primative version of binary code with how numbers where calculated and displayed through boolean logic
@miinyoo 9 aylar önce
I have to give mad props to your editor/animator(s). They do such a tremendous job distilling your scripts into visual language even though we all know none of this is actually classical mechanics at its roots. The classicality of it is emergent and the art style helps with that even though it is not explicitly said.
@shayorshayorshayor 9 aylar önce
OK tHERE Mr critique
@archimedus1971 9 aylar önce
@Repent and believe in Jesus Christ Bad bot...
@Kyuubey0406 9 aylar önce
@Repent and believe in Jesus Christ goku solos
@GrugTheJust 9 aylar önce
Speaking of, let me know if that water drop bit IS in fact morse code, or am I loosing my mind.
@buth82 9 aylar önce
@ashesdowns9635 5 aylar önce
Most Excellent Vid, concise and very informative. Born in 1963 I grew up when vacuum tubes were still in use (but then again, so were silk top hats) and witnessed the transistor age come into being. This vid helped me to understand WHY. Many, many thanks! Well done!
@antonnym214 9 aylar önce
This is a very nice documentary and the explanation is great for us amateurs. Awesome that you hosted an appearance by David from Usagi Electric! He is definitely a steely-eyed missile man! All good wishes.
@guarmiron5557 2 gün önce
I visited a Dew Line radar base just after they had switched from vacuum tube computers to new computers for the time (1980). They took us (Air Cadets) into a gymnasium size room filled with tight pack rows of vacuum tubes reaching to the ceiling. After they took us into another room and showed us this small refrigerator size box and told us that it did the same job as the gymnasium size computer. It was an amazing vision of the future of computer miniaturization.
@ForgottenMachines 4 aylar önce
5:58 Hey, it's my friend Dave / Usagi!!! Amazing explanation video here, top notch!
@LuxWad 7 aylar önce
I've been following this channel's videos on vaccuum-tube computers for a while now, it's really awesome to see this video!
@caodesignworks2407 9 aylar önce
Seeing the progress of computers laid out in a timeline is one of the most fascinating things to me. I've probably seen/ read the story about a dozen times and it's still interesting
@cabasse_music 9 aylar önce
same!! i'm in my late 30s here and the first time i read about it was in david macauley's 'the way things work' - a book i got as a christmas gift when i was probably 8 or 9. i found the description of this early computer extremely fascinating.
@LuisSierra42 9 aylar önce
The computer saga
@h8GW 9 aylar önce
I can barely understand the logic behind it all and *_I still_* find it interesting -until thinking about it gets too hard and something else grabs my attention.-
@monad_tcp 9 aylar önce
Its even cooler trying to replicate it, like Usagi did.
@duroxkilo 9 aylar önce
the progress just keeps going... the transistor and then the programming of the computers is probably our greatest achievement as a species. we are still in the phase of implementing this invention, we haven't seen "anything" yet. :)
@jeffreyweiss7611 11 gün önce
Wow. This was one of the best videos I have ever watched. A great introduction into how we got from the light bulb to the first vacuum tube based computers. I really light the little vignette about the discoloration of the first light bulbs and why it got discolored on one side. I am now a subscriber to Veritasium
@rogeredrinn4592 8 aylar önce
This was extremely well done!!! I was sure I'd only watch a little, but your graphics and narration were so well done I stayed to the end. Kudos!!!! 👍👍👍👍
@LaplacianFourier 8 aylar önce
I made a PowerPoint during my senior year crediting Claude Shannon for the start of digital age by drawing the parallel of Boolean Logic with electrical circuits! Feels great to have it shown here!
@Kasunanuhas 7 aylar önce
Huge Respect for those who involved in to this project
@gingaming_gg 6 aylar önce
I don't know how I took so long to find this channel, but this is definitely worthy of my time. Thanks for breaking these things down into a simple but fun way.
@valueofnothing2487 7 aylar önce
I have never seen such a simple and clear description of the inner workings of a tube.
@user-ks8oq8vq1w 9 gün önce
I've exclusively been watching your channel on TRvid for the past few days. Keep up the good work. 👍
@tommy98271 9 gün önce
Your videos, your ability to communicate so clearly, transports me back to my youth watching Connections. Like a modern James Burke.
@chetanpattar5057 8 aylar önce
Thankyou, this is really amazing to see working model of early computers and how concept was enhanced using diff technology. Relay switch -> triode -> transistor.
@thelettergs 4 aylar önce
Some of the videos of this channel are absolute gold mine for science students and/or enthusiasts.
@PrasannaMestha 9 aylar önce
Mad props to Veritassium for explaining such a complex subject in such a simplified manner. Brilliant!
@justingolden21 9 aylar önce
Every. Single. Time.
@pepesreal 9 aylar önce
You’re welcome
@unnikrishnanvr186 9 aylar önce
​@@justingolden21 Oh hey! Its moist critical
@RyanSchlesinger 9 aylar önce
@hydraali7 8 aylar önce
As a 10yr old electronic enthusiast I say that the first diode was actually very big than I thought
@TheNeiskorisceni Aylar önce
🥰Thanks !!! Finally I understand how electronic works...such a simple, yet brilliant animation and presentation. This is my favorite education channel!!!
@thefpvlife7785 Aylar önce
@peraruor 2 aylar önce
What an amaizing compilation of computing history! I will love to see something more about analog computing. Thank you so much.
@drewcompston4096 8 aylar önce
Another excellent, accessible video describing the science of how electronics work in an easy to understand way. I'd love to see you describe the history of the development of the transistor (that you tease about at the end) in a future video.
@fmxman1564 8 aylar önce
i hope showing these basic idea can one day spur another great invention. love how you simplify things
I have never seen the development of computers explained this fundamentally before. Thank you.
@bzuidgeest 9 aylar önce
Then you must have been born yesterday or missed a lot😂
@zefellowbud5970 9 aylar önce
@@bzuidgeest well sir not everyone is a nerd like us.
@bzuidgeest 9 aylar önce
@@zefellowbud5970 come on, basic schoolbooks provide the same explanation. Maybe American schoolbooks are suffering from all the book banning. Turing was gay, so maybe he is forbidden as, to woke 🤣
@Sniperboy5551 9 aylar önce
@bzuidgeest I think you hit the nail on the head. The American public education system keeps going further and further downhill. I’m a proud American, but even I know that our country is doomed if something doesn’t change soon.
@sankang9425 9 aylar önce
​@@bzuidgeest ​ If you didn't know American School Systems were bad you must've born yesterday 😂😂
@esmatfahim3399 2 aylar önce
Out of all the channels and videos to understand this topic, only here I was able to come to a conclusion. Well done!
@FernandoTakeshiSato 8 aylar önce
Beautifully done, Derek!
@xmcblxck 8 aylar önce
Fun fact: Thermionic emission is also used in microwaves (more precisely in the magnetron), so the light bulb is indirectly related to the invention of the microwave.
@wardogies 8 aylar önce
Thermionic emission is also used in x-ray machines
@hainesjw 6 aylar önce
And related: the machines that etch patterns onto silicon to make integrated chips. Maybe someone would like to “redstone” that! 😂
@xmcblxck 6 aylar önce
@@hainesjw LOL 😂
@Sama_09 2 aylar önce
One of the best video showing how transistors started !!
@BillyLongshot 7 aylar önce
so cool to watch. First time I understood where vacuum tubes came from, what they did, and why they became obsolete. Thanks
@AmanVerma-iy6rv 9 aylar önce
As a electronics student I knew what vacuum tubes are but finding out the history behind them was super interesting.
@jaredf6205 9 aylar önce
I think it’s interesting to realize that Tesla‘s invention of the radio would end up relying on an invention of Edison’s, the lightbulb, and a discovery by Edison that he only discovered because of his refusal to use Tesla’s AC, which led to first being used as a device to convert AC to DC, Lol, and then to create another device to amplify radio transmissions and then used to receive and play radio transmissions on a radios speaker.
@acewmd. 9 aylar önce
@@jaredf6205if those two had gotten along we might not have gotten as far. Ironically the competition of one upping each other’s inventions was the driving force for advancement. Like most things competition is good for advancement.
@bramfran4326 9 aylar önce
We found the way to connect the seemingly irrelevant pieces of the puzzle.
@NunoCordeiroPT 9 aylar önce
I came here to say this. I knew about vacuum tubes and I knew they were rudimentary BJTs. But it was awesome learning the history and the details.
@Mon-gm7rk 9 aylar önce
i know about them and have even "messed around" with them, because i work with audio/music related stuff. The audio and music industry still uses them, they can produce the same quality of audio than a transistor based system, and they have a very "unique" kind of touch added to the sound. its usually described as a warm super subtle distortion in audio that's very pleasant, and its imposible to emulate trough digital stuff. even music from your phone going trough an vacuum tube desk amplifier will sound very crispy in the most pleasant way there could be. i know it sounds exaggerated, but if you got good ears and know what you're hearing, you'll see that it's different.
@oscarmosh 8 aylar önce
wow, never thought of the connection, this video is simply AWESOME. thank you Derek and all of your team!
@user-lj2mj2ss6i 8 aylar önce
Usagi in the house!!! Nice. Been watching him and learning so much for a long time now.
@christiant2134 7 aylar önce
As an electrical engineer I love these videos. And this video explained early versions of processors or calculators so well and interesting. I can’t wait for the video on the modern silicon electronics that I work with and have become so hard to learn.
@MrUnterhugel 3 aylar önce
As a kid, my dad would take me to the hardware store, where they had a tube tester by the front door. Never tired of watching the tubes glow and was probably the reason I became an electrical engineer. 🤓. Nice video.
@Mistermodcreator 7 aylar önce
The first functioning digital universal Computer was actually the Zuse Z3, built in Germany by Konrad Zuse. It was functioning in 1941.
@old-moose 9 aylar önce
The memories: In high school 4 of us tried to build a "computer" with pinball game relays. Load &slow. We got it to add, subtract, & multiply. We graduated before getting it to divide. Later as a college instructor, I built a spreadsheet to demonstrate how computers calculated. It still amazes me how computers can do anything with such a limited number of basic tricks. My head is hurting again!
@lavishlavon 9 aylar önce
well you tried and you failed
@realtechhacks 9 aylar önce
@@lavishlavon Bro got three out of 4 operations working. I won't assume, but I'm betting more than you could do as a highschooler.
@Wulthrin 9 aylar önce
my grandpa called them "confusers"
@lavishlavon 9 aylar önce
@@realtechhacks and whose fault is that? 3 out of 4..the guy failed and he failed hard. nothing to go bragging about
@colbyboucher6391 9 aylar önce
​@@lavishlavon Lmao what??
@jayjohn9680 3 aylar önce
Aren’t we all so happy there are some smart or really perceptive people to figure stuff out like this.
@joecm 9 aylar önce
This was great thank you. Hope here's a part two!
@simonradowitzky4837 8 aylar önce
I enjoy David's videos a lot! I'm so happy he appears on your channel.
@pedropereira5043 6 aylar önce
Absolutely brilliant explanation. I already knew a few bits but the connections were enlightening!
Thanks veritasium for the vlog. Very helpful.
@Soul-Burn 9 aylar önce
Interesting trivia: The first "computer bug" was a literal moth stuck in a relay in one of these relay calculators!
@Dont_Read_My_Picture 9 aylar önce
Don't read my name!...
@ELBARTOmovies 9 aylar önce
I've waited for the moment that this fact gets dropped in this video! Thx for mentioning :D
@RecursiveTriforce 9 aylar önce
Nope. That's most likely myth. Research it! The name was probably around earlier. But the moth incident is most likely real.
@kealeradecal6091 9 aylar önce
It was grace gopper, and coined this malfunction as bug
@daviddavidson2357 9 aylar önce
The term was around before computers were a thing. It had to do with buzzing interference noises on phone lines which sounded like buzzing insects. Debugging referred to fixing the interference.
@williamhoward7121 6 aylar önce
My father had an electronic shop back in the '70s and I would assist him in going to houses and doing in home television repairs. We had a tube tester that allowed you to put in the tube number and it would tell you if it was good or bad. We also had a television picture to rejuvenator which he did the picture to filaments up burning off any buildup. It always amazes me the amount of heat that came off these things. You didn't awesome job of presenting this by the way!
@kz6fittycent 9 aylar önce
Thanks for shining some light on this topic.
@alizaidanthamyeez740 8 aylar önce
Veritasium I just want to point out that the first programmable electronic computer wasn’t the eniac, it was the colossus mark 1 which came out 2 years before the eniac and the colossus mark 1 was used to find the key settings for the Nazi Lorenz cipher in Bletchley park. The colossus mark 1 was also much more reliable because the person who made it, Tommy Flowers, knew the ideal ways to make it reliable
@zevnikov 7 aylar önce
This is the best explanation how tubes work in the whole TRvid. This is simpy amazing.
@robn8036 3 aylar önce
Beautifully explained. Thank you.
@taylorbrown9849 9 aylar önce
As a guy who majored in computer science, I gotta say this is one of the coolest videos I've seen in the TRvid science community in a while. I never made the connection between lightbulbs and the invention of vacuum tube based machines. Thank you Derek for putting together this amazing narrative for the fundamental turning point of electronic computer history!
@thespacejedi 9 aylar önce
A little odd that they didn't teach you this in computer science
@kintamas4425 8 aylar önce
@@thespacejedi eh, I think they just teach it to electrical engineers probably. They probably want more Software Engineers than Computer Scientists, so things like understanding the nitty gritty gets tossed aside (or I just haven't taken the relevant course. There is a course called digital circuits that I think I'm supposed to take.)
@jpisello 8 aylar önce
@@kintamas4425 Well, I _did_ take Digital Circuits (back in 1987), and we didn't learn about vacuum tubes (though we learned about transistors).
@kintamas4425 8 aylar önce
@@jpisello oh transistors are covered? That’s good. I’ve been trying to learn about them/read up on them, and it’s been slow going. The only thing I know so far is that there are numerous kinds of transistors. So far, my understanding is that for turning off a transistor maybe the middle portion of the transistor gets a counterbalance of voltage to make it so that no difference of voltage exists for a current to run across the transistor. Is this the case? That would mean keeping a transistor off would actually cost energy. Do transistors have a capacitor be the key to whether they’re switched on or off? To switch them off the part behind the dielectric (of air or maybe silicon) would be made into whatever charge so that no difference of voltage exists for a current to flow across. And when they want it to turn on then they make a difference appear by change the charge.
@bakkeclerens 7 aylar önce
I felt exacly the same way
@betanapallisandeepra 7 aylar önce
Very good explanation and great visuals
@walidtaher8906 3 aylar önce
Very well made and the only videos that really explained the transistor and how it evolved from the light bulb
@ralphlong9973 3 aylar önce
Excellent. I have seen vacuum tubes all my life and have never understood them. Now I do. Thanks.
@sixpackplays7539 Aylar önce
I was recently at an antique store and they had old radios that had lightbulbs in them
@user-hb1hu7ky5e 3 gün önce
That's really the art of computer programming thanks for video
@hackcrew42 9 aylar önce
As someone who works for a commercial and industrial lighting agency, I love this. Such a great history lesson. This is the kind of Veritasium video I love to see!
without a doubt
@tomhappening 9 aylar önce
@@JokeswithMitochondria funny username lol
@sterlingarcher8041 9 aylar önce
@@JokeswithMitochondria ur username actually made me click on ur profile. Love ur content hahaha. Funny stuff
@zes7215 9 aylar önce
@jdjd6789 7 aylar önce
I work as a test engineer testing induction power supplies used in all heat treating applications to metals , melting , and furnaces / billet heaters. Pretty cool to see where it all started.
@waltertoki1 3 gün önce
This is a terrific history of vacuum tubes and their use in computers before transistors. Perhaps qubits will replace transistors and the next generation will look at “why the past computers were made out of transistors”.
@flyback_driver 7 aylar önce
This is one of rhe best descriptions of how semi-comductors work.
@raindropsrising7662 8 aylar önce
So fun to see the video Title is also part of an experiment. Love the content and the spirit of forever learning in order to optimize results.
@devendrapandey3761 7 aylar önce
As an electronic engineer I can say this is one of the most accurate and best representation of our field I've ever seen
@Pamudder 9 aylar önce
My father was a professor at Cornell University, and I have some memories from the early era of computers. My father acquired for his office in about 1960 a purely mechanical calculator made by Friden that could add, subtract, multiply, divide, and, COMPUTE A SQUARE ROOT. It was about twice the size of an electric typewriter, very noisy in operation, and cost the then-huge sum of $1300. I also remember being taken in about 1958, as a very small child, to see Cornell's first electronic computer, running on banks of vacuum tubes and pretty much filling a former engineering school machine shop,
@tymofei8586 9 aylar önce
ur so lucky
@miyamoto900 9 aylar önce
U still have that calculator?
@Pamudder 9 aylar önce
@@miyamoto900 Heavens no. To start with, it was always property of the university.
@miyamoto900 9 aylar önce
@@Pamudder can we steal it ? What would it take ? Please make a plan and inform me at earliest. Yours truly, Miyamoto.
@2nostromo 9 aylar önce
@@miyamoto900 I have a tesla model 3. I'll drive getaway, deal?
@user-iq1zn9lo7q 9 aylar önce
Super! I look forward to continuing !
@SurajShaik.s 13 gün önce
such a great explanation very useful for engineering students ,for your every video it require. lot of background research
@EnglishTeacherBerlin 2 aylar önce
Such an insightful and informative video, thank you very much! 👍
@T3rraL33t 8 aylar önce
As an electrical and computer engineer this was fascinating. Please finish the story!
@ScottyPhoton 6 aylar önce
Great overview! Cool to see the beginnings of so much technology and other aspects like boolean algebra.
@DarrenGedye 9 aylar önce
I was born in 1968. My mother was a Comptometer operator ( a mechanical adding machine), and my father was mad about electronics. I grew up surrounded by vacuum tubes, but I don't think I really understood them until watching this video! Thank you for your amazing content.
@unnamedchannel1237 8 aylar önce
Your mother was a mechanical adding machine ?
@DarrenGedye 7 aylar önce
@unnamedchannel1237 I suppose that is a _possible_ interpretation of my statement. Another slightly more _plausible_ interpretation is that she was the *operator* of a mechanical adding machine.
@Shamak 5 aylar önce
I was also born in 1968. Specifically November 17. My dad first bought our (my) first computer on my 13th birthday. AI will be for STEM geeks in 2023 what BASIC was to computer geeks in 1981.
@meepferret 4 aylar önce
My mom's best friend was also a Comptometer operator for Bacardi. That helped them get hotel rooms in Puerto Rico when others were turned away!
@MarvinHartmann452 4 aylar önce
​@@unnamedchannel1237Yeah. My mother was in fact an actual mechanic adding machine, always busy with spending and budgets or something. My father called her "cranky" sometimes..
@princekunal8735 3 aylar önce
This video was very interesting and informative. We need a part 2, continuing the story with the semiconductors..
@jeremyneander 8 aylar önce
This was fantastic. I eagerly await the next part of this story.
@maryburt3030 2 aylar önce
Best explanation of this I’ve heard.
@joe2mercs 8 aylar önce
Great video crammed with interesting information. During the war a top secret project was pursued by the U.K. to develop an electronic code breaking machine called the Colossus. Ten of the twelve ordered Mk2 machines were completed and used successfully until the end of the war. At wars end these machines were destroyed and the project was kept secret for over thirty years. The last two Colossi machines (11 and 12) were shipped to GCHQ for secret work after the War. These machines were some ways many years ahead of the ENIAC computer. .
@CloudyBogdan 2 aylar önce
This is so truly fascinating
@gamersincepong 9 aylar önce
I look forward to the next video in this evolution, because after this comes the transistor. I think it could be argued that the biggest milestones in human history are the mastery of fire, the printing press, the discovery of penicillin, and the invention of the transistor. There are literally billions of transistors used in our everyday life, yet very few are aware of how much they have changed the world.
@photonjones5908 9 aylar önce
They have all certainly hastened the end of our trajectory on this planet. It is interssting you left out the internal combustion engine.
@renerpho 9 aylar önce
About 10 sextillion transistors have been made since they were invented in 1947.
@a.t652 9 aylar önce
Don't forget the disco ball
@glitch1182 9 aylar önce
Discrete transistors have nothing on integrated circuits.
@doomtho42 9 aylar önce
I would probably add internal combustion and agriculture (I’m not 100% certain here, but I believe it was the advent of crop rotation that first enabled long-term/perpetual human settlement), but yeah, you’re definitely not wrong!
@PaulGreenberg911 6 gün önce
Room 100 at the Moore School was the home of ENIAC. It was so large that it has become multiple classrooms and a small display of some ENIAC parts. When I was studying electrical engineering in the early 80's, it was customary to turn the knobs of the control unit that at the time was sadly abandoned and only recognized by a few of us.
@mattakudesu 7 aylar önce
This is an insanely interesting and very understandable about how humans got to the incredible computing power we have today based off of such simple principles. You guys did such a great job on this video.
@koiyujo1543 7 aylar önce
the best thing is that vaccum tubes are making a come back for spacetravel and stuff like that
@scotttrandem8308 8 aylar önce
You should do a follow up video about Colossus. It was a top secret vacuum tube computer used in code breaking in 1943. Two years before ENIAC.