The Most Powerful Computers You've Never Heard Of

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OVERWERK 11 aylar önce
Your clarity and efforts are always appreciated. - When I see a new Veritasium video, I'm glued to my screen.
UNCHAINED 5 aylar önce
havent seen you in a long time overwerk
Nigel P.
Nigel P. 6 aylar önce
acetone will help
Reverend BlueJeans
Reverend BlueJeans 6 aylar önce
Will analogue computer play better games.
Ramu 7 aylar önce
@did? 1111
lhpfla 11 aylar önce
Totally agree
Andrew Watson
Andrew Watson 3 aylar önce
The Jeppesen Flight Computer is an analogue computer still used by many pilots today. It calculates groundspeed, true airspeed, density altitude, drift, does imperial to metric conversions, and more, all by lining up a couple of metal disks and a slide. If your battery dies on your tablet, that old flight computer is there to save the day.
Andrew Watson
Andrew Watson 23 gün önce
@Maxence Leboeuf Jeppesen is a company, now a subsidiary of Boeing since 2000. (I had stock at that time). I think it's named after the founder , who began by selling aviation maps in the late 1920's or early 1930's. Creating the app was just a natural progression of the slide rule "Flight Computer" as mankind became more digital.
Maxence Leboeuf
Maxence Leboeuf 24 gün önce
Is that what the Jeppesen app is named after?
Andrew Watson
Andrew Watson 3 aylar önce
@Grady Breslin My dad had one that he used in WW2. I'm going to guess late 1930s or early 1940s.
Grady Breslin
Grady Breslin 3 aylar önce
How long has that been around? Seems really interesting
Sharlos 12 saatler önce
This video made me remember the clocktowers of Neal Stephensons Anathem. Still a favourite book.
nikkiwolf22 9 aylar önce
As someone who's OBSESSED with both computers and mathematics, I can't believe I never knew like, 80% of this before. My area of study for computational devices in college was always like, digital-style computers from the Lovelace era and onward, so those tide-predicting devices were something never brought up! How fascinating!
Korey Hayden
Korey Hayden 5 gün önce
@SStupendous never said it was, all I Saud was nerd....didn't say if it was bad or good...quit reaching
𝖂𝖍𝖎𝖕𝖕𝖊𝖉 𝕯𝖗𝖊𝖆𝖒
@Korey Hayden Why don't you call him other things too? Yes, he's a 'nerd' perhaps; is that bad?
Korey Hayden
Korey Hayden 5 gün önce
@𝖂𝖍𝖎𝖕𝖕𝖊𝖉 𝕯𝖗𝖊𝖆𝖒 doesn't make any less of a nerd
𝖂𝖍𝖎𝖕𝖕𝖊𝖉 𝕯𝖗𝖊𝖆𝖒
@Korey Hayden *Guy doing more with his life than you
Korey Hayden
Korey Hayden 6 gün önce
Harold L Potts
Harold L Potts 9 aylar önce
Analogue machines in the old style were objects of great beauty, and in many cases the result of superb craftsmanship. They were however very expensive, and had to be lovingly maintained, since they were prone to malfunction due to the build up of dirt. Inevitably too they gave inaccurate results. A secondary effect was cumulative error as a result of rounding errors in a lengthy calculation. On a personal level I used a slide rule for many years in my early career as a design engineer, but was blown away by my first electronic calculator - a Texas Instruments machine which by modern standards would be considered pathetic. That was in the 1970's. I shall look forward to viewing a further piece on a possible comeback for analogue computers, but am sceptical that they can ever overcome the problems inherent in this kind of machine.
Darren Ung
Darren Ung Aylar önce
Thank you for sharing your experience with analog computers and the start of digital ones. I wonder if we can harness and or even deliberately engineer their cumulative errors for artificial intelligence research.
Harold L Potts
Harold L Potts Aylar önce
@Poly Hexamethyl " rounding errors is a problem with numerical algorithms even on digital computers " You make a very valid point. An example is the so-called " butterfly effect " which was discovered [ and named ] as a result of long digital computer calculations associated with meteorology modelling. It was discovered that after halting the iteration at a point, then introducing tiny rounding errors then resuming. the iteration produced very large and significant differences in the end result. This was dubbed the " butterfly effect ". Inevitably ever since then too many people have interpreted this literally and assume that the beat of a butterfly's wings can literally affect the future behaviour of the weather, which of course would be nonsensical. It did point out however that there is a practical limit to how many iterations of a complicated model will yield a useful result. In terms of meteorology the practical limit is a two-day forecast, and a three day forecast is of questionable value.
Poly Hexamethyl
Poly Hexamethyl Aylar önce
Accumulation of rounding errors is a problem with numerical algorithms even on digital computers and requires careful management. Analog computing elements are being used in the latest hardware for AI/neural networks.
Stefan Mangold
Stefan Mangold 2 aylar önce
@Nikunj Bhatt I think this is a key statement in this context. The idea of future analog computers is not to use such mechanical constructions, instead analog signals, electromagnetic. So you have OpAmps, R, C, and Ls, ASICs and similar, all integrated in silicon.
joeybobbie1 2 aylar önce
@Harold L Potts I don’t know, I’ve never heard of a gear Case. Being Cooled with Air instead of a Heavy Weight Oil like a 90Weight. That would be something a Mechanical Engineer would have to answer. Either way I think you are still going to get a Lot of Wear over Time.
AlphaPhoenix 11 aylar önce
I exclaimed at my TV when you showed the rotary ball integrator. What a beautiful system!
yes yes
yes yes 2 aylar önce
i can imagine someone sitting down watching tv and then seeing a ball moving on a plate and exclaiming at their tv
Laurence Rilling
Laurence Rilling 9 aylar önce
wait till you see a planimeter
Swapshots 9 aylar önce
Likewise! Such genius.
Joel Wexler
Joel Wexler 9 aylar önce
I said OMG! They were so astonishingly smart.
Saleh Hamza
Saleh Hamza 10 aylar önce
Millbean13 6 aylar önce
I’m always amazed at how these guys were able to figure this stuff out so long ago. I had a hard enough time trying to understanding FFT and Laplace transform in my engineering classes today and I still feel like I don’t have a good hold.
geisaune 17 gün önce
Probably because they didn't have social media, the internet, smartphones, and television as constant distractions and it was actually possible for them to spend time thinking critically and creatively. Plus, all of those things, when used in an unhealthy way, can literally cause symptoms of addiction, literally change brain circuitry, and inhibit your ability to focus and think deeply. Tech companies deliberately design all of those things to be addictive.
Melon Husk
Melon Husk Aylar önce
History. History. History.
Andrew Taylor
Andrew Taylor 10 aylar önce
I wish I'd see this in 1st year Electronic and Electrical Engineering. Being able to physically represent an abstract mathematical property so efficiently would has made the course less tedious.
Sherif Ehab
Sherif Ehab 7 aylar önce
As a computer scientist I have to say man I got chills just watching the part where Kelvin came up with the mechanical computer .. this is just so inspiring !
Sebastian Contreras
Sebastian Contreras 9 aylar önce
When you brought up dive bombers, i thought you were gonna talk about the automatic dive recovery system that helped pilots avoid lawn darting into Terrain if they were too tunnel visioned
EEVblog 11 aylar önce
I've done a teardown video of a B52 bomber astro compass analog computer and it's glorious how these thing can compute sinusoidals and do integration etc.
Alive and well in Israel
@Mr OP There are no good people.
Josshua Calixto
Josshua Calixto 11 aylar önce
MOUNTAIN GOATS Hi, I have some petition for you next video. I want to know, how can mountain goats scale such narrow cliffs without losing balance, is their mass physically distributed to achieve this? Can you explain this, please ?
Slevin Channel
Slevin Channel 11 aylar önce
@K Labrecque Try Veritasium, Tier Zoo, and Sci Man Dan for Starters and then tell me if you'd like more, cause i sure have more. I am so much on youtube and i love Science so much, so dont think the 3 are the only ones i can give.
K Labrecque
K Labrecque 11 aylar önce
@Slevin Channel OK. Give.
Bottlecapbill 11 aylar önce
@Sanditra Muda My theory is that most intelligence is actually just desire. People who LOVE what they do will always excel. Whether it's sports, cooking, medicine or technology. The real drivers in any field are the ones who are mentally addicted to it. :)
Roger Grimsby
Roger Grimsby 3 aylar önce
I had no idea about the history of tide computations. The presentation of the Fourier application is the best video that I ever saw. Even if I hadn't taken Calculus 30 years ago, there would have been a lot of understanding imparted from the stunning visual aids. The video also provides an appreciation of the genius (1% inspiration and 99% perspiration) of earlier generations.
Logan Nearhood
Logan Nearhood 5 aylar önce
I dropped out of school, regrettably, but whenever I find your channel while scrolling, I always seem to pay more attention than I did in school. You've taught me more than most of the people who were paid to teach me, and for that I appreciate you V, keep up the good work!
♥Olga Gaming♥
♥Olga Gaming♥ 2 aylar önce
No worries, school does not have anything to do with wisdom, inteliigence etc. and the knowledge can be fill in
math-meets-machines 2 aylar önce
Absolutely great video! The first person who added sine waves with Scotch Yoke was not William Thomson (Lord Kelvin) but Francis Bashforth (1819-1912). He built a Fourier synthesizer in 1845 for purely math purposes (equation solver). When Kelvin's tide predictors started to become famous he tried to make his priority known but it didn't work very well. His paper "A description of a machine for finding numerical roots of equations" was reprinted in 1892.
cpnscarlet 9 aylar önce
Was at the wavefront of the analog-to-digital resolution in engineering. During an experimental study with large lasers in 1986, we took data with high speed 16mm film, but was able to digitize the outline of hand drawings made from the film on an artist's bench. From the digitized data, we could compute laser irradiance. 16mm is gone and digital cameras are must faster. Programs change the images to outlines, and combining the time stamp from each digital frame, we can get the same data in about....10 milliseconds. A little faster than the three hours we used to need.
The Engineering Mindset
I'm absolutely fascinated by these old mechanical computers. There was no software back then to design them, the device was designed within someone's imagination. Truly incredible.
Marcelo Coutinho
Marcelo Coutinho 28 gün önce
@man0warable you're actually right and I've been wrong to call you a fool. (although you still are).
man0warable 28 gün önce
@Marcelo Coutinho Why? For suggesting that people have been using tools to help design things for centuries? What an outrageous suggestion! I'm guessing that you don't know what a protractor or compass is then?
Marcelo Coutinho
Marcelo Coutinho 28 gün önce
@Albtraum genius
Marcelo Coutinho
Marcelo Coutinho 28 gün önce
@ashishb ab fool and idiot
Marcelo Coutinho
Marcelo Coutinho 28 gün önce
@Brian Vogt fool
Jonathan Howes
Jonathan Howes 5 aylar önce
Excellent presentation. When I was doing my aerospace masters in 1981, I had a project to simulate an unstable combat aircraft and then to add the effect of an active control system to stabilise and control it. This was all analogue using potentiometers and amplifiers. The reason was that analogue computers have the immediate response needed to bring a dynamically unstable systems under control without introducing nuisance and limit cycle oscillations. All artificial stability systems for aircraft at the time had an active end built as an analogue computer, even if the pilot input end was still digital. It was a very powerful lesson. As my tutor observed, in general with digital systems you can have fast or you can have powerful. With analogue computing, it's possible to make the sensor the source of power (as in aerodynamic servo tabs, the BAe146 regional jet has an entirely analogue pitch control system involving a devious concoction of pneumatic, aerodynamic and inertial devices), the result can be both fast (=responsive) and powerful.
Emerkaes 10 aylar önce
My prediction: it's about multiplication and addition for neural networks - these use mostly convolution operations on floating point values, which are(convolutions) made of addition and multiplication. So you can replace float with analog value(like voltage) if you have op-amps in adding and multiplying topology. The problem is, you have to make such semiconductor chip for every topology. The second problem is, with very small scale of integration, the transistors charachteristics may be not so "clean" and sometimes quite inpredictible
Ric Cochran
Ric Cochran 6 aylar önce
I've wondered how and when there would be a merging of digital and analog with infinite data points ever since being annoyed at stairstepping in printed fonts. Applications in photography and visual displays as well as audio would be just the beginning that people can easily imagine. The more profound advancements would come from what most of us have never imagined.
t16205 6 aylar önce
Yes! This is the way
Krista Jones
Krista Jones 7 aylar önce
These scientists were absolute GENIUSES and I’m just blown away at their accomplishments
Decline 2 aylar önce
It's incomprehensibly easier to become a data scientist today
Seth N.
Seth N. 11 aylar önce
Chris from "Clickspring" is building an Antikytherean mechanism and has been building it using period tools and techniques to the best of the experts knowledge...the ww1/2 analog firing computers are still incredibly advanced and smartly built tbh. They are just insanely accurate for as little input as they take and what they can interpret and output for solutions
Feeding Ravens
Feeding Ravens Aylar önce
My confusion is just that I do not know of any technological "environment" that has produced something remotely comparable Toothed brass gears - do you know of any other occurence of that in that time?
Feeding Ravens
Feeding Ravens Aylar önce
@Wynfrith Nichtwo I think Drachinifel made a video of those computers. Do you really want to see it in use? Chances are that someone is shooting back at you when it is used.
Samurai Josh
Samurai Josh 10 aylar önce
@Vigilant Cosmic Penguin 😂 what are you getting at?
User 2C47
User 2C47 11 aylar önce
@Morganmcc6 I think he put all the real content behind a paywall.
miad 555
miad 555 11 aylar önce
Ok now i get it gaming computer's origin came from war time inventions so no wander now we use the gaming pc to play shooting games 🙂
Lynn R
Lynn R 4 aylar önce
I am a meteorology student and my university is very old fashioned. I had to do a lab course for meteorological instruments, and one of them involved using an analog computer to measure the humidity. The device contained human hairs and the computer was able to measure how much the hairs stretch and draw a graph of the humidity. The tutor asked me beforehand what I expected to see, and I said an exponential curve, and the thing really did draw a perfect exponential curve. I remember both my partner and I were kind of fascinated by it even though nobody would ever actually use such an archaic device anymore. Thinking about analog computers reminds me of another professor who claimed that every single physical thing that happens is a measurement, which is why the wave function in quantum mechanics collapses when it's observed. Thinking about it, building devices to mimic these measurements that God and the universe is constantly making makes a lot of sense.
mattymerr701 6 aylar önce
Analogue computers have never really died off. There are some great videos on old naval ship firing solution solvers and they are some awesome analogue computers.
Jeffrey Gustafson
Jeffrey Gustafson 9 aylar önce
The last few videos veritasium has put out have all been incredible and of stellar quality. Seriously the best educational videos i have seen on youtube. Thank you so much for the awesome content!!!
Mike Collins
Mike Collins 6 aylar önce
Another application of analog computers (I presume) is in the aiming of battleship guns, which, when you think about it, must take into account a number of variables in real time. I saw on a TRvid video a while back that the shell from a large naval cannon can take as long as 90 seconds to reach its target. At the speed they travel, that is a *_long_* way. Over that distance, the target ship would appear tiny - if it is not over the horizon - and must require extraordinary accuracy, as moving the cannon through as little as 0.1 degrees would definitely put it off-target. This accuracy has to be maintained, taking into account the rolling and pitching of the ship, and the motion of the target, assuming it is also a ship. At full range, the cannon must not fire at where the other ship is, but at where it *_will be_* in 90 seconds. When you see a ship in port, everything is moving very slowly, but at sea, they move along quite quickly, with a displacement of several lengths during the time of travel of the shell. If a gun boat is to stand any chance of hitting a moving target from its unsteady platform, there must be some pretty fancy computation behind it - and during the last war, there was no digital control available.
Fábio Andrade
Fábio Andrade 11 aylar önce
The ball and disk integrator actually blew my mind. I cannot believe such a thing has existed and I only ever heard about it now. What a beautiful machine.
Grumbles 2 aylar önce
@Ryan Denziloe Every amazing invention seems obvious after it's already been made. Thousands of generations of humans, however, didn't come up with even the idea of a wheel, or screw, and similarly countless educated, intelligent humans never came up with this concept.
janglestick 11 aylar önce
@Tomorrow Vi oh very cool, thank you very much
Tomorrow Vi
Tomorrow Vi 11 aylar önce
@janglestick I'll try - On youtube - 507 Mechanical movements; Channel "Yes Yen GraphiTech" has various animations of many of the different movements
KevinVideo5 11 aylar önce
As having "needed" to provide assistance towards utilizing "Electronic Micro Computational Devices Choices And Needing To Write The Coding For Logical 4th Level Progr
KevinVideo5 11 aylar önce
Programming Languages", from scratch, Analog type and paper filing systems were my precious backup redundancy. That was my PC and Apple III attitude beginning around 1982. My attitude about Analog Devices combined with paperwork filing systems remains "unchanged" in December 26th 2021. These wonderful documentary videos clearly show that carving such information into stone tablets has been needed for Human Civilizations all over Earth for many thousands of years. A Very Strong Intent to provide information for "Future Humans"! Continue On!
Ioronrote Montour
Ioronrote Montour 9 aylar önce
It's amazing how smart those guys were who calculated the tides.
Jetex Jim
Jetex Jim 9 aylar önce
A great video. I was trained, in the early 1970s, on aircraft analogue computers. The ball and disc resolver was a key part of many British V-bomber systems. Following on from these mechanical systems perhaps you could find something on magnetic amplifiers? These were calculating amplifiers much more robust than the thermionic tubes or the early transistors of the day.
MelloCello 7 aylar önce
I've been watching your channel for years, and some of the videos are hit and miss for me, but this Analog series may your greatest uploads yet. This is revolutionary. Thank you for sharing, I will be looking forward to part 2
VastRaven 7 aylar önce
I see some of the comments of how amazing and paradigm shifting this video was and I definitely echo those sentiments! It's been a week since watching part 1 and 2 but I'm still thinking about it. A thought almost literally struck me today. Since Analog computers are able to model random systems, like you demonstrated in part one. Are Analog computers better than digital computers at predicting a chaotic system, like lets say, turbulent flow like in your previous video. I was thinking it might be because of the fact that an analog computer is demonstrating what's actually happening in the physical world. It's so awesome!! Maybe someone on here can give me an answer because I'm just burning to know! I'm a huge fan of your videos, you often tackle difficult to explain topics that not many science communicators will not touch! Thank you for your work on this platform!
DashFlash 11 aylar önce
It's so crazy how adding or multiplying sine waves, something that's as simple as punching values into a calculator today, used to require some unbelievable engineering. I mean, just the notion of such an advanced mechanical computer makes my head hurt. The things we do today would be seen as magic many years ago. Great video!
FireCrauter 11 aylar önce
@shortcat but it requires physical things, digitally(in real digital computer/"internet of things") you only download an IDE, for a programming language and you can create your own calculator, save the piece of code for more projects and improve it without problem at any time, just by compiling again.
FireCrauter 11 aylar önce
@shortcat but it requires physical things, digitally you only download an IDE, for a programming language and you can create your own calculator, save the piece of code for more projects and improve it without problem at any time, just by compiling again.
shortcat 11 aylar önce
On the opposite, the analogue computer seems so clever yet simple and efficient. It consists of just a few elements as opposed to millions in a simplest digital calculator, which also requires billions steps to add two sinewawes. No wonder they are coming back!
Tolya Rapport
Tolya Rapport 11 aylar önce
Dont calculators do sine/cosine through power series?
Phantaminium 11 aylar önce
Isn't this undermining the fact that a calculator is an even greater feat of engineering?
Pragmatic Trespasser
Pragmatic Trespasser 10 aylar önce
Hybrid computers (Analog+Digital) are the future of AI. I would love to know which companies are leading this revolution. Waiting for Part 2 😄
D. O. O.
D. O. O. 10 aylar önce
brilliant as always...i just wish there were more educators like you. had I been fortunate enough to have you as a secondary school teacher my life would be filled with much more wonder
aycc-nbh72 7 aylar önce
So could this mean that analog computers could potentially come back in the form of magnetic tape? Also, it is interesting to learn that machine learning is a concept that predates even Alan Turing’s concepts and is a field that is far older than I had initially thought.
Alex Gian
Alex Gian 6 aylar önce
Wonderful stuff! I also love the peculiar irony of all these ingenious analogue devices being modelled by (admittedly very fast) digital programs - all those composed graphs, ray-tracings and 3D models... Is that a positive feedback loop? LOL. As others have already remarked, we are really at the start of a new era of scientific understanding. Congratulations. See yourself as a pioneer!
Neil Rogers
Neil Rogers 11 aylar önce
When I was learning to be an engineer back in the early '70s, analog computers were on the way out the door. Large-scale integration was beginning, and Moore's Law was a new concept that my professor's predicted was going to revolutionize computers. Fifty years later I am retired after a career in digital computing, and now I find that analog is making a comeback. I am looking forward to part 2; I know enough about analog computer that I can anticipate some of the application for which they will be useful. I suspect the improvements in electronics, and perhaps even 3D printing of components will produce new and sophisticated analog machines. Makes me wish I was 20 again, so I could have a second career in analog! Please keep making these videos - you are doing valuable work. 👍
Jeff Bruce
Jeff Bruce 6 aylar önce
I bet your college education didn't cost $80,000 either.
Norbert Kiszka
Norbert Kiszka 11 aylar önce
​@Fnors " Things like a thermostat or a light switch are not analog _computers_". Maybe switch is not a "computer" (depending on definition...), but im pretty sure, thermostats are computers. Because You have two inputs data and one output data. In input data You have measured temperature and temperature setting. You need to compare this two data and send result to output. When one is higher and second one is lower, then output is 0 (off). When difference is opposite, then output is 1 (on). This computation can be both in analog and digital way. In analog way, we need just single opamp (operational amplifier) to do this job. More of that, to make hysteresis its just two resistors. This two resistors are making positive feedback loop with highly reduced feedback by this two resistors (basically its typical voltage divider). Single and modern opamp You can buy with ~0.3$. If You wanna do this thing with microcontroller (small CPU with memory in same case), then microcontroller will cost about 10 times more, and You need more parts outside microcontroller (ADC, crystal oscillator, etc) to do this simple job.
Fnors 11 aylar önce
@Norbert Kiszka I'm not sure we are talking about the same thing. Things like a thermostat or a light switch are not analog _computers_. You don't use them to compute things. I'm talking about analog VS digital _computers_. Not for machines in general. It's _way_ easier to make/use a digital computer to do your taxes than make/build some analog machine that will do it for you. My point is that with a digital computer, you can use the same machine to do taxes for any state or country. You only have to change the code, not the machine itself. And you can use it for _other_ stuff the rest of the year. With the analog computer, you would need to rebuild and/or physically modify it to do taxes for a different state. Even Kelvin's machine shown in the video is only usable to compute tidal data. If you want to do something else with it you need to change pieces and manually adjust the speed of the spinning discs. No matter how precise an analog computer can be, there's no denying that a digital computer is more versatile and, up until recently, easier to improve. Which can help explains why digital has been the focus for computers instead of analog. Still, I do agree that adding a computer to a light switch is generally pretty wasteful.
Norbert Kiszka
Norbert Kiszka 11 aylar önce
​@Fnors Yes, but no. For simplest things, there is no need for doing this in digital way, because this is a shot from a cannon to a fly - too expensive for simple task. Do You have 2GHz CPU inside electric switch for turning light on in a room? I think this is a just a plastic with tiny amount of metal alloys. Same thing when You want to half of light or thermal regulation and nothing more - then doing it analog will make it same or even more precise with much less money.
Fnors 11 aylar önce
@Norbert Kiszka I'm not talking about today's methods or items. If you go back 50-60 years ago though, pursuing digital computers made more sense. You build/buy one good digital computer (for the period) and you can use it for dozens of things. All you need is a different program. You would need to buy/build/modify/tune one analog computer for every single application you might need. Costs would've been prohibitive back then. It just made more sense to improve digital computers, both practically and economically. Especially since digital computers have the advantage of being easy to improve: you basically just need to add more CPUs, RAM and storage to make your current computer better. No need for more precise or higher quality components. You only need more. It's definitely not as easy to do with analog. Doubling a component won't reduce the error or improve the precision of the components themselves.
John Smith
John Smith 10 aylar önce
I remember the Heath Kit catalogs as a kid and their early computer kits. Really primitive computers but some of the first to be available to the general public. They were essentially pretty basic logic comparators, many would fit in a single chip now. I don't think they even had screens if I remember right. Man I suddenly feel my age lol
Bob Johnson
Bob Johnson 10 aylar önce
My first computer was Heathkit H89 A, 4.77mhz, no HDD, hundreds of solder joints. What a great computer for a beginner.
Jerome Barry
Jerome Barry 10 aylar önce
My father served in the U.S. Army from Jan 2, 1942 until September 1945. He told me about the Norden bomb sight. That means he was deeply impressed with the promises it made. He served in a specialized "signals radio intelligence" unit. His granddaughter today is in the U.S. Navy serving in a "signals radio intelligence" capacity. The tools have changed in 75 years, but the mission has not.
Aditya Debnath
Aditya Debnath 3 aylar önce
What fascinates me the most is not the fact that mankind built such great technologies over the past centuries, but how fast they integrated them in wars.
Rune Norderhaug
Rune Norderhaug 3 aylar önce
Ironically at the same time with decentralization we may also be seeing an increasing change in the way we think of digitlization as well. To the point that ironically just as some things as suggested in this video may be converted to analog other things that have long stayed analog will be finally converted to be digital
Ori 11 aylar önce
My grandad was a bomber pilot in the RAF in WW2, his crew was occasionally given new devices to test, one of them was a machine that contained a moving map that was small enough to strap to their thigh. This map would rotate around rollers and update to show the terrain he was flying over regardless of visibility to the ground. The whole crew thought it was incredible and provided great feedback to the engineers that developed it. But as was often the case it was taken away after testing and they never got it back for the rest of the war. Always been curious what that machine was, how it worked and why it was taken away if it seemed to be working.
Ori 11 aylar önce
@Reality Quotient Thanks super interesting that was my guess that it had to be so specific to the flight plan it ultimately wasn't scalable.
Reality Quotient
Reality Quotient 11 aylar önce
There was a similar device used in autos. It was basically a map of your route printed on a strip of paper that would unroll as you drove, and it was connected to the odometer to keep it synchronized. Look up the Iter Avto which apparently dates back to 1930. The obvious downside is that if you stray off-course it's not self-correcting.
Peter Laniran
Peter Laniran 11 aylar önce
Brock Obama
Brock Obama 11 aylar önce
Steve Messenger
Steve Messenger 11 aylar önce
@DanDeMan Could be an early inertial guidance system. Uses a gyro compass and crude accelerometers. The Germans used inertial guidance in V-2 rockets. Not very accurate back then but they were being actively developed by the US also.
TheFireLizard 7 aylar önce
I remember growing up i would go to the nc battleship memorial. And i remember reading a plaque that the analog computers on board with the right operators were just as fast and accurate as digital computers. Granted they were making a comparison to 1980's computers. But nothing on that ship was digital. And it survived ww2 and racked up an impressive number of victories. So those guys working those old analog targeting systems really knew their stuff. Even back then they could hit targets several miles away. And account for the target moving. That is impressive.
codypendency 7 gün önce
as an instrumentation control technician it’s cool seeing my field of work and the fundamentals/history of instruments be talked about it gives you another level of understanding and interest
Suspense_Comix 2 aylar önce
I can’t imagine what humans would have done with 3D printers and the internet and computers back then if they ever got their hands on them to build these things.
Elgoog 3 aylar önce
Analog computers also would be a great tool for maths classes. Our teacher was absolutely horrible at explaining integral to us. Having a mechanical device to help with it would've been great.
Victor Eijkhout
Victor Eijkhout 11 aylar önce
As a total software person I find these mechanical devices so fascinating and clever. Those people coming up with them were geniuses.
A Nother
A Nother Aylar önce
@Joseph mhfd That sentence doesn't even make grammatical sense. There is no forbidden history of mankind, and our history certainly goes back much further than 10,000 years. Only a fool would believe otherwise.
A Nother
A Nother Aylar önce
@Lil Yeet Well, in a few years time, what you use today will be old technology too. But EVERYTHING you see today is built upon the incremental work of people who came before them. For example, without vacuum tubes, the transistor would not exist, which means no solid state electronics, so no microprocessors. Without the historical work on magnetism, we wouldn't have electricity, so no electronics at all. Give credit to those who gave us the foundations of what we have today.
A Nother
A Nother Aylar önce
@Joe Biden is a complete idiot Firstly the SR71 is only the fastest JET aircraft in the world, there are many much faster aircraft around today. Secondly, a slide rule is a handy tool, but it's not particularly accurate in and of itself. It also requires a lot of input from a human. You could use an abacus to do the same job, or log tables and a pen and paper and get the same results. As for Jo Biden being an idiot, maybe he is... but compared to Donald Trump, he's an absolute genius. Compared to Trump, my cat is a genius.
A Nother
A Nother Aylar önce
@抺香膏馬利亞 That is absolutely incorrect. The term "Computer" actually referred originally to people whose job it was to 'compute' calculations by hand. It didn't refer to electronic machines until much later on. A calculator is a computer, and they can be digital, analogue, electronic or mechanical.
Melon Husk
Melon Husk Aylar önce
Anything that is the result of multiple man years of work is almost always like magic. That is, until you sit down and deconstruct the history of the creation of the device.
Modern Day Geeks
Modern Day Geeks 9 aylar önce
It's truly astounding as to how we've significantly progressed with the technology we have now. We're really living in an age of innovation!
Dankman Jones
Dankman Jones 7 aylar önce
Fascinating! The most interesting part of this video is when I learned that the US resorted to napalming civilians in order to simplify a very complex task, simply as a result of instrumental failure. Not that anyone denies their war crimes, its just very fascinating to know that they were very much willing to slaughter civilians long before they developed nukes. I was never taught this in school and I wished more people would delve deeper into this sort of history. 15:55 if anyone is wondering.
Themi Megas
Themi Megas 9 aylar önce
I've been so excited for the next one - I hope it comes soon! Your videos are a long wait sometimes but always master pieces
Jeshurun Carlos
Jeshurun Carlos 6 aylar önce
Amazing how much effort is put into your videos be it the history, working and structure behind complex machinery, the animations, editing and the list goes on....
mstalcup 11 aylar önce
This presentation, on this channel, may be my all-time favorite. As a software engineer, I am blown away and humbled by the innovations of people like Lord Kelvin. I absolutely loved the organization and flow of this presentation.
Bottlecapbill 11 aylar önce
@David S Which country are you talking about? If you're in the USA you already have some of the nicest things in history. If you want to make history, change the world. If you want to make money, appeal to the average masses.
David S
David S 11 aylar önce
Agreed! Their entire production is the very highest in quality. Just reviewing the references on this 1 video alone says a lot. It really is one of the best science channels on TRvid. When I think about this other youtuber...a 20-something year old turd who's worth $20M from making imbecilic, "how dumb can we get in 20 minutes on this video?" while he's driving a Bently down Sunset Blvd in We-Ho, w/ his model girlfriend, who wouldn't give him the time of day except for his $20M, his Bently, his mansion & his fame. No wonder this country can't have nice things.
Jimi Sommer
Jimi Sommer 10 gün önce
A great video suggestion might be universal computation as formulated by David Deutsch in 1985. Otherwise known as the Church-Turing-Deutsch principle. The history leading up to it and the work it built on, is fascinating. Also, it's explanatory implications on computation, physics, and even AGI, are extremely far reaching.
D W 6 aylar önce
I am constantly humbled by the enormous amount of work and ingenuity that went into machines I have taken for granted.
Bert Speggly
Bert Speggly 7 aylar önce
Great video, thank you. But as a Brit I must challenge your statement that the first practical digital computer was the ENIAC. No, it was the Colossus, built by Tommy Flowers for Bletchley Park, but unfortunately Churchill's misguided security concerns kept it a secret for several decades.
Shipwright1918 2 aylar önce
Another one would be the Torpedo Data Computer, it calculated firing solutions for submarine torpedoes during WW2. Back then, the torpedoes were unguided and ran in straight lines (for the most part), so you had to fire where the target was going to be by the time the torpedo had traveled the distance. Lots of gears, gyroscopes, and relays inside, fascinating machines.
Erik 11 aylar önce
This was astoundingly relevant to--almost a summary of--my History of Science: The Digital Age course, for which I have a final for tomorrow. This video is practically a 'further reading' section. Thank you for this.
Czereśnia 5 aylar önce
Keegan Conlee
Keegan Conlee 7 aylar önce
@Erik what a small world we live in!
Tom Kunich
Tom Kunich 7 aylar önce
Early analog computers used gears for assured motion. Modern analog devices could use instead rollers to avoid play in the gears the weak point is always the analog readout. This inherently is limited by the accuracy of the readout devices.
Tom Kunich
Tom Kunich 7 aylar önce
We had an entire set of bombing analog computers in the B52D it also had a Norden bomb sight that was more limited by your inability to accurately determine a target from 30,000 feet than from inaccuracies in the mechanism. So we used radar and a bombing analog computer to determine when to release our payload. This was why photo/radar reconnaissance was so important.
Erik 9 aylar önce
@Keegan Conlee Yes, it did include that protest. You could also say the lecture was in the botany building without revealing the university.
Randy Martin
Randy Martin 5 aylar önce
What an absolutely fascinating video. I've been extensively working on theory using physics with the stock market, and your explanation of the frequencies of Tides and deconstructing them across time frames has given me some very interesting ideas
StoneTheCrow 2 aylar önce
Lmao get a job
Andrew Mortellaro
Andrew Mortellaro 9 aylar önce
Fourier math has always fascinated me, and I had no idea that analog computers like this were used like this. My mind is blown - truly inspirational video.
Johnny Ragadoo
Johnny Ragadoo 10 aylar önce
Wow! Wonderful story. Analog computing is all kinds of handy. I worked on a blood analyzer design once. My role was stepper motor control, but the real magic was in the analog computing that analyzed color absorption in the samples. Fascinating stuff. Do I sense upcoming presentations about continuous variable quantum computing?
Jordan Cooper
Jordan Cooper 8 aylar önce
Wow crazy well researched and presented video derek! Very thought provoking and quite the interesting series of events and stories. Thanks for sharing :)
RabidMortal1 11 aylar önce
The analog computers used by navies during the First and Second World Wars are amazing technological feats. The inputs are the continuous, relative motions of opposing ships and the outputs are a synchronous stream of firing solutions.
Glenn Rishton
Glenn Rishton 4 aylar önce
The US Navy was still using pure analog computers for gun fire control into the 70s and possibly early 80s. In the early 70s I worked on the fire control radar for the Tartar missile system and at that time our system was a mixture of analog and digital.
Seth N.
Seth N. 11 aylar önce
@Dave Byrne different tech entirely
theflyingfool 11 aylar önce
@Dave Byrne that hole was filled in immediately the war ended...
Josiah the NF
Josiah the NF 11 aylar önce
@Dave Byrne It became a important piece of equipment to the Allies due to it’s increased accuracy with pinpointing the exact location for detonation.
Dave Byrne
Dave Byrne 11 aylar önce
The Norden bomb site. The third most expensive weapons program of WW2. An analog computer with 50 variables.
Roger Kelley
Roger Kelley 3 gün önce
The early Automatic Transmissions where hydraulic analog computers. As time, and developments went, digital computers where added to transmissions to smooth out the shifting between gears, or make the process more efficient. The crazy thing to think about is that the modern automatic transmission is a mixed digital, and analog computer.
Vaishakh Chavan
Vaishakh Chavan 9 aylar önce
Wow! You just blew my mind away! I’ve been working with electronics form the era of the vacuum tube valves all the way to modern computation and microcontrollers. Lord Kelvin and the magic he made certainly overwhelmed me but what’s even better was the way in which man could think and produce these amazing things, both horrible as well as incredible. Thank you. I loved this one.
Hal Weilbrenner
Hal Weilbrenner 2 aylar önce
That's awesome that you went through that transition in electronics & survived.
Mark Hollingsworth
Mark Hollingsworth 2 aylar önce
Analog computers were used more recently than many realize. They have very good high-frequency, low-latency responses. Fighter flight controls were analog until the F-16 used a digital flight control. The F-111 converted to digital flight controls much later. And those frequencies are relatively low.
Dean DeanN
Dean DeanN 7 aylar önce
I used to work in an area that had 4 high and 4 low tides per day. The area's geography greatly magnified solar tides - we named them the low and high high tide, and the low and high low tide. The tides interacted with each other on a rotating roughly two week cycle.
Francis Vaughan
Francis Vaughan 11 aylar önce
Kelvin's tide machines are my single most favourite things. I remember seeing them for the first time in the London Science Museum over 30 years ago. Small nitpick. The pics you show when mentioning Colossus are actually the Bombe machines used to crack Enigma, not the machine used to crack the Lorentz codes. Everyone forgets Konrad Zuse and his early computers. These were earlier and more advanced than the ENIAC. But since he was German, and developed them during WW2, history has not been kind.
PERILEX 11 aylar önce
​ @Vigilant Cosmic Penguin Turing-completeness alone isn't what defines a _modern computer_ and cutting the marvel that the Z3 was down to that is very disrespectful especially when you're considering that the ENIAC could only get reprogrammed by rewiring it, while Zuse even conceived the worlds first High-level programming language called "Plankalkül". To prove just how advanced the Z3 was here's a list of the features it would combine as a system: - Use of the binary number system - Floating point number calculation - Input and output devices - Possibility of user interaction during the calculation process - Microprograms - Pipelining of instruction sequences - Numerical special values - Parallel execution of operations All of the things listed above are insanely important features that you'll find within any modern computer system and cutting it down to its lack of Turing-completeness (which is very important never the less) is rather silly.
Nate Over
Nate Over 11 aylar önce
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Dancing Alone wRentals
Dancing Alone wRentals 11 aylar önce
a Polish mathematician and cryptologist who in late 1932 reconstructed the sight-unseen German military Enigma cipher machine, aided by limited documents obtained by French military intelligence
Jyriiiii 11 aylar önce
@Vigilant Cosmic Penguin Actually, in a purely theoretical sense, it was. You can read Raul Rojas' 1997 paper on this topic. But indeed, you're totally right that in any practical sense, it really wasn't.
Willit 11 aylar önce
Ah yes, Konrad Zuse. I used his computers as an example in an assignment about early and new computers, and how they've changed. History has definently not been kind. Sources for Konrad's work was few and far between, especially using the school chromebooks lol.
Jan Willem v.d. Gronden
I'm so impressed with your ability to disect any subject no matter how complex, like this one. My brain stumbles and spins trying to keep pace, but at leat I manage, only thanks to your excellent work! I was sure I already was subscribed, but I wasn't! I corrected that immediately!
Rahul Meghwal
Rahul Meghwal 7 aylar önce
Great video ! Waiting for part 2. Not sure why Turing’s efforts weren’t included. Hoping to see them in part 2.
Mepacrina 5 aylar önce
10:00 For calculating harmonic component you need two multipliers ( sin and cos ) , not only one as shown (and some square / root / add) . Otherwise a very good explanation and well documented history . Not to mention a good animation describing the machines !
Jan Kowalski
Jan Kowalski 8 aylar önce
Analog computers were used in Poland in the 70's and 80's. Saw that at the technical university in the 90's as a curiosity. You brought those memories back.
SRFriso94 11 aylar önce
I do want to point out on the rather incredibly improvement of shells/kill ratios of Allied AA guns: that wasn't solely down to better maneuvering of the guns. Planes are fast and small, so hitting them in three dimensional space is really difficult. The Americans and the British jointly developed the proximity fuse, basically a way for the shell to detect when it was near an enemy plane and detonate, and this at least removed the third dimension from their aim, making them much more accurate.
Kevin Love
Kevin Love 11 aylar önce
@chris schaefer Not trenches built properly, with overhead protection.
anticat900 11 aylar önce
@Brian Alleman yes quite amazing they could make valve tech tiny and able to withstand the massive g's being shot out of a gun. I'd rate these shells as equivalent to the moon landing computer as a technology pushed well beyond what could have normally be thought possible at the time.
ruolbu 11 aylar önce
@SToXC_ well obviously the 3rd dimension isn't physically removed xD I think a good intuitive comparison is hunting. To kill a running animal, a hunter needs to hit a very small spot by leading the shot precisely. It's difficult and depends on speed and distance. Now your bullet transforms into a flying bomb that explodes and kills the animal if it hits anywhere within a 5 meter radius. Essentially the target transforms from a vital organ the size of fist into a barn. That's a big big target to hit, and even with speed and distance still affecting things, their influence became tiny in comparison.
SToXC_ 11 aylar önce
@Emerson Peters yeah exactly, the plane still moves in 3 dimensions, what changes is that you may still hit even if your shell didnt actually touch the plane :/
Emerson Peters
Emerson Peters 11 aylar önce
This would not remove the third dimension, it would only make it so they need to be less accurate...
Nick Oldrini
Nick Oldrini 7 aylar önce
Very interesting article. Analogue computers have been used for many years in the aviation industry for design and simulation purposes. The Royal Aircraft Establishment at Farnborough had a flying machine (!) which allowed them to adjust the handling characteristics of the host aircraft to match potential test aircraft. I have one question: what's this "British Society" that Kelvin was apparently a member of? He was president of The Royal Society...which still exists today.
datboi Nathan
datboi Nathan 3 aylar önce
Computers like this make you wonder how many ancient geniuses have been forgotten
Douglas Bell
Douglas Bell 6 aylar önce
Building Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning was controlled by analog computers up until the early 1980s. These were mainly pneumatic using 3-13 psi as a control signal range sensing temperature error signals and computing proportional and integral control functions. Other analog control computers were electric or electronic. The Australian HIFAR nuclear reactor secondary cooling system was controlled by electronic modules calculating square-root functions, proportional and integral functions without any software. Buoys are "boys" not "boo-eyes"
drstalone 3 aylar önce
The US/NA pronunciation is /ˈbuː.i/ which I believe is Derek 's accent. Source: Cambridge dictionary
Nick 2 aylar önce
The feeling when your brain is such an absolute unit that the computer you designed was in active use for almost 100 years. I love science!☺
Arfloctions 11 aylar önce
So Lord Kelvin was the first guy to think of a system to compute the FFT! How come I never heard about this in engineering school. Before DFTs and FFTs, there existed AFT (Analog Fourier Transform). Mind blown...🤯. And what an elegant construction. These concepts should be used to teach mathematics and engineering in STEM. The genesis of the thinking behind any mathematical and engineering breakthrough goes way beyond equations and has real world analogies that are much easier to understand. Brilliant video. Thanks for everything you do, Veritasium. 🎉🙏🏽
Duck 11 aylar önce
What's more crazy is him calculating it by hand. Like whaaaaaaat?!
Piccalilli Pit
Piccalilli Pit 11 aylar önce
@Ion Busman - I hated maths at school - I think its amazing now...
Ion Busman
Ion Busman 11 aylar önce
Another engineer here who hated math because I never understood what the hell a cosine is used for, quadratics etc… found all these early computer videos and super interested! And frankly finally get it…. Education is a joke.
Piccalilli Pit
Piccalilli Pit 11 aylar önce
100% agree. To my mind it's not until you SEE mathematics emerging as a function of the physical world that you truly understand the beauty of it...
Brian Thwaites
Brian Thwaites 11 aylar önce
Because you went to school in the USA?
venugopal ganesh
venugopal ganesh 9 aylar önce
Man, such immersive information and explained in a very understandable manner is just awesome.
Francis Emm
Francis Emm 5 aylar önce
Very very awesome how machines are built. Very inspiring and interesting. Wish you make more videos around this area🥰😇
Puebes Puebes
Puebes Puebes 3 aylar önce
13:32 this was also heavily influenced by the gun and ammo used, sometime ww1 anti aircraft gun where simply field gun or standart machingun directes at plane, during world war two army used specially made anti aircraft gun using better fuze shell
Curious Nomad
Curious Nomad 9 aylar önce
Hi Veritasium. You're a pretty smart guy. I know this sounds clicheic but have you ever considered attempting to recreate what Tesla was talking about by harnessing electricity from the ionosphere? He apparently said he was successful. But why not look into it?
Martin Stent
Martin Stent 11 aylar önce
My physics teacher used to tell us that digital computers would never catch on because of their limited accuracy, and those analog computers were going to be big. That was in the UK in the 1960s. Since then, I have been laughing about that and thinking “How wrong can you be!!”. But, well, maybe he knew something… let’s wait and see.
Vigilant Cosmic Penguin
"I think there is a world market for maybe five computers." - Thomas Watson
Badou Plus
Badou Plus 11 aylar önce
@J Are you saying that the y2k bug was not real at all? The anticipation of a catastrophe was over exaggerated, yes, but the bug was real. It was mostly addressed before January 1st 2000, that's all.
J 11 aylar önce
False like the y2k bug ...digital computers will always be key
MrrVlad 11 aylar önce
currently optical "computers" seem to be the next thing for deep learning. Not because of accuracy, but because of power efficiency.
Eggy McEgg
Eggy McEgg 11 aylar önce
maybe he was talking about quantum computers...
KJs581 5 aylar önce
Early 70's when we started working Fire Control, Digital fire control had only just started, so we had to learn both. While some ships had digital; most then were still analogue. The first digital gunnery FC computer we had had 2K of memory and ran it's entire program in 1/2 a second. Sounds ludicrous now. It is preserved in the Daring class Destroyer HMAS Vampire in Sydney (museum). By the late 80's, the analogue systems were all gone (apart from small, secondary functions) as digital took over. But the analogue systems were a work of art from a precision mechanical standpoint was concerned. Multiple mechanical computation devices such as differentials and integrators (as above, also known in our (Navy) circles as "potters wheels") that were made with a level of precision seldom seen in other devices. I worked on that stuff for 40 years, and while the hardware changed, the calculations done didn't. Was an interesting job, I enjoyed every minute of it.
WT L 6 aylar önce
As a music man my fascination and curiosity in electronics was toward the analogue realm so digital I thought was a novelty. The high speed microprocessors put that to an end. But it is good to know that analogue may come back into the mix. Except maybe 10^-37metres might throw a spanner the works
H. H.
H. H. 4 aylar önce
Your Lego computers (which are awesome, by the way), a long with your discussion of computing parts getting close to their minimum size, give one big hint as to why analog computers might be coming back. Your analog computer is MUCH smaller and has MANY fewer parts than the digital computer. That's because it's designed specifically for the task it's doing, rather than forcing a simple system whose core components have nothing to do with the problem at hand to indirectly solve it.
Jonathan Fanning
Jonathan Fanning 9 aylar önce
Wonderful video, beautifully put together, very well explained in layman's terms.
Infinitonica 10 aylar önce
Driving me crazy waiting for part 2 of this. This video has ignited my imagination like CRAZY. It is amazing to live in these times with such amazing learning resources.
joeybobbie1 2 aylar önce
@Infinitonica your right about Hearing with our whole Body. The Military uses Low Resonant Frequencies you can’t Hear with your Ears to make the Enemy very Sick.
joeybobbie1 2 aylar önce
@Infinitonica True. When they started Digitizing Old Albums to rerelease them on CD. They didn’t sound as good. Your right also that all the nuances of the sounds are lost. I still think the Old Albums and Cassette Tapes sounded better than Digital. Even the Old 8 Track Tapes. I’m remember Recording our Band at the Studios when they used the Old 16 Track Machines.👍
Princess Salty
Princess Salty 2 aylar önce
Imagine, that this technology is decades old... how are we being fooled
Letame Espianto
Letame Espianto 3 aylar önce
What is the URL of the sequel of this video please?
A W 6 aylar önce
I think I know the answer. Our increasing dependency on digital computers to regulate fundamental parts of our daily societal life (regulation of water and energy transport and the whole global economy for a start) makes us extremely vulnerable to malicious digital parties (such as (enemy state-supported-) hacking groups). Changing ones to zeros can potentially destabalize water transport or shut down a whole economy. Analogue computers can evade this problem.
WhyIsTheMooseLoose 9 aylar önce
Thank you for what you do @Veritasium! You are truly an inspiration to me to stay curious!
Ginger Ninger
Ginger Ninger 6 aylar önce
Something about seeing some Valves stuck together to make an OP-amp really makes me happy, it satisfies my nostalgia for analog tech. I didn't realise they were so old
Orlando Beltran
Orlando Beltran 9 aylar önce
Excellent video. I want to propose a theme for your next videos. It's about the accuracy of historical chronology. I think many people take for granted that historical dates are infallible, when the reality is that many are often inaccurate. Greetings
Summerlily 10 aylar önce
I've subscribed to your channel because my brother says you have a good collection of veritable good knowledge stored in your videos. I've decided to follow in my dad's footsteps, and this spring have changed some of my electives so I can become the first female Engineer in our family. Well, at least on Dad's side. I have lots of cousins [female] from mom's side that are super smart and do engineering of all kinds and other great things! 💖❤️💕
I am GOO
I am GOO 10 aylar önce
Good luck. Study hard and remember to have fun
frogandspanner 11 aylar önce
When I began as an undergrad 50 years ago, after experiencing numerical analysis with mechanical calculators, then on an Elliot 903, we moved on to analogue computers. As a Physicist I wondered why anybody would want to programme a digital computer to solve differential equations when it took a couple of minutes to patch the equation into the analogue box, and results came out instantly as the variables were changed - rather than punching a new paper tape, queueing to feed it in, then after dealing with error messages trying again and getting the result. I spent two 'gap' years working on British Government work (the Official Secrets Act prevents me speaking further), and when I returned to university the analogue devices had been scrapped. I have a permanent eBay watch for an EAI TR20 - the device on which I lost my analogue virginity.
Zaydan Alfariz
Zaydan Alfariz 11 aylar önce
Why does the act prevent to you speak further? Is because you work for something that's secret or to prevent people to use internals to basically bribe them (or what we call here in Indonesia as the power of internals)?
Blugale Doh
Blugale Doh 11 aylar önce
@Alex Moreno Yet there continue to be dissatisfaction particularly after 2008.
Vigilant Cosmic Penguin
@ben whitehair They would tell you, but the Official Secrets Act prevents them speaking further.
Slevin Channel
Slevin Channel 11 aylar önce
@ben whitehair ONCE AGAIN, i ask randomly around: Anyone interested in some Science TRvidr Names i could tell you? Cause the learning never ends? Want some Recommendations from a fellow science enthusiast?
Alex Moreno
Alex Moreno 11 aylar önce
@Blugale Doh less poverty, easier access to information, better technology, better medicine, more people can go to college, people make more money, less crime, safer cars (actually pretty much everything is safer), less crazy religious stuff (in the west at least), better entertainment and a lot of other stuff too there are some things that are worse now just not as much
GonkDroid 4Prez
GonkDroid 4Prez 9 aylar önce
Fun fact: the fire directors on the Iowa Battleships were all analog, and were never replaced because they were so accurate.
Brandon Allen
Brandon Allen 10 aylar önce
Personally I think of quantum computing as a form of analog computing, as the value of a qubits is measured by it's 3d rotation thus it has many values between 1 and 0.
Lawrence Shirley
Lawrence Shirley 7 aylar önce
As a computer scientist, I am well aware of analog computers, analog computing, and its advantages and disadvantages. There are also hundreds (yes hundreds) of alternative computing methods and devices that were relegated to obscurity by the simple fact that digital computing is cheaper and more efficient for a wide range of applications. The slide rule (for example) represents logarithmic computing, yet we don't call them computers because they are usually implemented as manual devices. Likewise, Dick Hamming ran through a number of alternative computing approaches when I took his course in Grad School. One of the best features of digital computing, however, is that it has brought computing to the masses. You don't have to be a computer scientist to take advantage of digital computers. In fact, although interesting, the substance of this video is of little value to most professions.
Banter Maestro2
Banter Maestro2 7 aylar önce
Found a military mechanical analog computer at a surplus store in Lancaster, California back in the 70s. It even had a ball-and-disk integrator. It was a mechanical masterpiece, but Mojave Desert sand had unfortunately infiltrated everything inside.
Iori Kira
Iori Kira 11 aylar önce
In absolute awe of these old computers. The Rotary Ball Integrator is beautiful. Back in college, it was all about learning the symbology of how to solve integral and differential equations, and although we were told we needed to understand conceptually what we were doing, we didn't spend any time on it. Seeing these machines add all those waves makes that visual representation all the more fascinating and gives you a sense "aha! so that's what it means to add waves and take the integral"
Jelly Squiddles
Jelly Squiddles 11 aylar önce
@Grace Jackson I never get this about educational systems, they all start backwards and expect people to be good at grasping things out of a vacuum. I tought myself the most complex stuff possible without any help from teachers or experts. When I analysed how I did it it was always "backwards" to how school tought you: 1. I saw a problem, 2. I broke it down to the basic most important aspects and (...) then I calculated it. I was always very happy with my solutions (they worked perfectly). (...) = 1. as an amateur having absolutely no clue on deeper scientific stuff, 2. looking up the formulas necessary for the calculation (or in case of language learning - learning the grammar), 3. learning on my own how to apply the formulas, 4. adding formulas together to solve the problem. Why could I never do this stuff in school or university? Because I only had a fuckton of puzzle pieces and absolutely no picture in mind of what they are supposed to ressemble. If you have a problem - like the tidal waves - you very clearly have data on what to expect and compare to your solution. I wish school would start out teaching the actual real world application FIRST (yes, it is extremely complicated) and break it down in smaller and smaller parts that can be tought individually. You can always see that you are in "chapter 3" of the "tidal wave problem" and where this fits in the bigger picture and what is left to do. At first you think "Sh*t I'll never be able to learn this clusterf**k?!", but having this picture of what is expected is giving such a great motivational reward when you realize you solved this HUGE problem on your own. How does school do it? They teach you all the tiny pieces with NO explenation of what they are for. Then at the end you get to solve a problem that is laughably easier than tides calculation and you still don't know how to solve it, because you never had to apply the puzzle pieces to real world problems. School... every time... I hate it so much.
Tori Courtney
Tori Courtney 11 aylar önce
I don't think I really appreciated what integration was doing until I took a chemistry lab in college with an outdated FTIR that could only print to paper. We had to cut different peaks and weigh them to compare against each other.
Bob Levittan
Bob Levittan 7 aylar önce
When I was a kid - around 1960 - I built (from a kit) a computer that was kind of like your white, grey and black three wheel computer, except it used audio tones for multiplication and division problems. When you would set the first wheel to a number, you would hear a tone of a specific pitch that related to the number. Then you would turn the second wheel to another number and you would hear a second tone, the pitch of which was different if you set it to a different number than the first wheel. Then you would turn the third wheel until the two pitches merged into one pitch, and the number that the third wheel pointed to was the answer.
King Bradley
King Bradley 4 aylar önce
This is amazing. Thompson's multiplier integral is very similar to how you would perform convolution of 2 analog signals on a paper. I remember my Uni prof. Teaching it as sliding one function across the other and taking the integral.
Hal Weilbrenner
Hal Weilbrenner 2 aylar önce
I don't understand this but it seems brilliant.
John West
John West 6 aylar önce
I learned about analog computers, (as did millions of others,) from the best selling book, and finalist for the Pulitzer Prize, 'Chaos - Making A New Science', by James Gleick.
Grant Douglas
Grant Douglas 9 aylar önce
Better late than never, that was incredibly interesting and brilliantly presented.
This is why we can't have nice things
Math's Fundamental Flaw
görünümler 22 000 000
Hacking a weird TV censoring device