The Longest-Running Evolution Experiment

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If you ran evolution all over again, would you get humans? How repeatable is ? This video is sponsored by @BountyBrand.

Special thanks to Prof. Richard Lenski and team for showing me around the lab - it is an honor to be able to witness and document such a historic science experiment.
Thanks to Dr Zachary Blount for the help with research and setting up the competition time-lapse, Dr Nkrumah Grant for microscope images of the long-term line cells @NkrumahGrant
Devin Lake, Kate Bellgowan, and Dr. Minako Izutsu for being part of this video. Long Live the LTEE!

LTEE website - myxo.css.msu.edu/ecoli/index.html
Intro footage courtesy of the Kishony Lab - kishony.technion.ac.il
Lenski, R. E., & Travisano, M. (1994). Dynamics of adaptation and diversification: a 10,000-generation experiment with bacterial populations. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 91(15), 6808-6814. - ve42.co/Lenski1994

Lenski, R. E., Rose, M. R., Simpson, S. C., & Tadler, S. C. (1991). Long-term experimental evolution in Escherichia coli. I. Adaptation and divergence during 2,000 generations. The American Naturalist, 138(6), 1315-1341. - ve42.co/Lenski1991

Good, B. H., McDonald, M. J., Barrick, J. E., Lenski, R. E., & Desai, M. M. (2017). The dynamics of molecular evolution over 60,000 generations. Nature, 551(7678), 45-50. - ve42.co/Good2017

Blount, Z. D., Borland, C. Z., & Lenski, R. E. (2008). Historical contingency and the evolution of a key innovation in an experimental population of Escherichia coli. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 105(23), 7899-7906. - ve42.co/Blount2008

Blount, Z. D., Lenski, R. E., & Losos, J. B. (2018). Contingency and determinism in evolution: Replaying life’s tape. Science, 362(6415). - ve42.co/Blount2018

Wiser, M. J., Ribeck, N., & Lenski, R. E. (2013). Long-term dynamics of adaptation in asexual populations. Science, 342(6164), 1364-1367. - ve42.co/Wiser2013

N, Scharping. (2019). How a 30-Year Experiment Has Fundamentally Changed Our View of How Evolution Works. Discover - ve42.co/Scharping

Special thanks to Patreon supporters: Mike Tung, Evgeny Skvortsov, Meekay, Ismail Öncü Usta, Paul Peijzel, Crated Comments, Anna, Mac Malkawi, Michael Schneider, Oleksii Leonov, Jim Osmun, Tyson McDowell, Ludovic Robillard, Jim buckmaster, fanime96, Juan Benet, Ruslan Khroma, Robert Blum, Richard Sundvall, Lee Redden, Vincent, Marinus Kuivenhoven, Alfred Wallace, Arjun Chakroborty, Joar Wandborg, Clayton Greenwell, Pindex, Michael Krugman, Cy 'kkm' K'Nelson, Sam Lutfi, Ron Neal

Research and Writing by by Derek Muller, Petr Lebedev and Casey Rentz
Animation by Iván Tello
Filmed by Derek Muller, Emily Zhang and Raquel Nuno
Edited by Derek Muller
Music by Jonny Hyman and from Epidemic Sound epidemicsound.com
Additional video supplied by Getty Images
Thumbnail image courtesy of the Kishony Lab
Produced by Casey Rentz



15 Haz 2021




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Zeus KF
Zeus KF Yıl önce
You can tell that this professor really is interested in what he is doing.
elastichedgehog Aylar önce
@-- ​ Good for him! Although, I doubt that was the case for most of his career and it certainly isn't the case for *most* academics.
-- Aylar önce
@ChaCha how do you know how research grants are awarded?
-- Aylar önce
@elastichedgehog > academia career not for the money Apparently Lenski had a $300k annual salary in 2019, according to govsalaries. Sounds pretty good money to me for fing around for 30 years.
T Greaux
T Greaux 4 aylar önce
You think? Maybe thats why he chose to dedicate his entire adult life to studying it and making a career out of it. Go figure
grys 2 aylar önce
This professor is frighteningly good at explaining and keeping his audience engaged. I can see why he spoke for most of the video, and how there seems to be minimal cuts / editing of footage. Amazing! Thoroughly enjoyed grasping new concepts from listening to him.
Triairius Aylar önce
@Benjamin Roodenburg Look, you asked. I don't know what to tell you other than what I know. If you want to argue, there are better ways to do it than to rope in someone who genuinely is trying to answer what I thought was an honest question.
MaskOnFilterOff Aylar önce
​@Benjamin Roodenburg It's a common way to say, essentially, "awe-inspiring". It's exaggerating the awe to the point of fear, since the two often go hand in hand. Think, like, an eldritch horror or "the fear of God" or something. If you think about it, you'll probably realize you've heard people say things like "this is scary good" or "she's so hot it's scary"? Strong negative descriptors are often used to emphasize something positive. It's similar to using "crazy good" (so good it seems unreal; no literal mental illness involved) or "stupid good" (so good that you're dumbfounded; nothing to do with literal stupidity).
Benjamin Roodenburg
@Triairius exaggeration of the word scary? Why would it be scary in any kind of way? It being figurative would mean it has something in common with the emotion he’s trying to convey. I don’t think fear was the intended emotion. If I destroy someone in chess I can call it a massacre. Meaning that the opposition had not chance whatsoever. That would be the correlation, but I can’t see such a thing return in his wording.
Triairius Aylar önce
@Benjamin Roodenburg It isn't. It's figurative. Exaggerated for effect.
Benjamin Roodenburg
Why is it frightening?
MysticVitriol 4 aylar önce
Imagine one of these days one colony forms a multicellular structure. Or 'cannibalise' but not really and form a structure similar to mitochondria or chloroplast. That would be sooo cool.
MysticVitriol 24 gün önce
@James Gabor yeah.
James Gabor
James Gabor 24 gün önce
@MysticVitriol it would most likely take much longer. Much, much longer. This is simply due to the fact that brains evolved within populations of trilllions or quadrillions of cells with an entire earth of space, rather than simple test tubes. Though it may seem redundant, it is true that a higher population, and also a more diverse environment, makes evolution go much faster.
rJAYde Aylar önce
so I guess humanity might be destroyed by its creation. except it's not AI, it's these bacteria/um(idk)
Ashurean Aylar önce
I bet there will be a day where we observe that kind of evolution in a laboratory environment, maybe it won't be from this experiment, maybe it won't be for another hundred years, but I bet it'll happen, and it'll be really cool.
Parvathy Pramod
Parvathy Pramod 6 aylar önce
The world of bacteria and archaea is really different. Trust me when i say i was stunned when my professor said “We have more bacterial cells in our body than our cells” on my first microbiology class. Their world teaches us the ‘will to survive’ in any condition
EebstertheGreat 7 gün önce
@EredilElexi An earlier estimate that there were about ten times as many bacterial cells in your gut as human cells in your body has been revised. A more recent published estimate is that there are about the same number, which still makes Parvathy's statement totally plausible. Nothing has been proven one way or another.
Struggle 2 aylar önce
@EredilElexi Nah, it's true. Those bacterium though compared to the size of one human cell are relatively small though. So, in terms of mass of these cells we are majority human.
Sean Padden
Sean Padden 2 aylar önce
​@EredilElexi OK, you made a claim, provide evidence.
EredilElexi 3 aylar önce
This has been proven wrong
DQMYNATOR 2.0 5 aylar önce
Hello there, you handsome looking container of a brazillion microorganisms how about we .... ... meh. - I find my way out.
Solar 24
Solar 24 4 aylar önce
What an absolutely astounding experiment I’ve never heard of. Hopefully we can keep it going
Ayisy Amirul
Ayisy Amirul Yıl önce
His team has been doing this for 33 years and not missed a single day? Now that’s commitment.
Life On Lockdown
Life On Lockdown 10 gün önce
@Random Cat maybe the universe was an accident, maybe the universe was created by a dying universe, maybe the "universe" infinite in size ansd our universe is some random black hole, maybe the universe was spontainiosly made in an infinite pool of more and more universes, multiverses, omniverses, etc. You just cannot have a definitive understanding of how the universe was created unil we have more evidence if it was *created* by a conscious being, or if it was spontainiosly "created", or if it was always there. We either need to know more about the universe to the smallest level, or get to the edge (if thats even possible) /make a portal strong enough to teleport somwhere else outside of our own universe. (Other dimension, universe, or just plain a physical area outside of the universe).
Life On Lockdown
Life On Lockdown 10 gün önce
@Aurorian and where did you get this information?
Life On Lockdown
Life On Lockdown 10 gün önce
@Random Cat *Bacteria and microrginisms kickstarted life*
Aurelia Aylar önce
No... not him. him and his team.
Traveller Aylar önce
@S F perhaps interns
Corne Mouton
Corne Mouton 6 aylar önce
How cool is Prof. Richard Lenski, damnit, was so fascinating listening to him. Interesting video, thank you!
S.Unosson 2 aylar önce
@Sandro Félix What about the fact that mutations are practically exclusively deleterious? The mathematics of millions of bad mutations compared to a few possibly beneficial ones is difficult to explain as the source of new and ever more complex functional life forms. All cancer for example is result of mutations.
Sandro Félix
Sandro Félix 2 aylar önce
@S.Unosson humans are complex organisms. We have millions of complex cells ready for mutations all the time, also the environment around us (virus, atmosphere, etc) push our evolution toward. The experiment is based on a simple bacteria on a controlled environment, so it is reasonable that the experiment showed less mutations than you thought it would happen
S.Unosson 6 aylar önce
But if the only significant change in 74500 generations is a small change in what these bacteria digest, the logical conclusion is that there did not happen much evolution at all. If that represents 1.1 million years in humans, in what way does it confirm human evolution?
adam84144 Aylar önce
That was fantastic! I'm not particularly biology-minded but the way he engaged with the subject and described the experiment had me glued to my monitor.
Mars 7 aylar önce
Comment about the sponsor: keep in mind that dish cloths are more friendly to the environment, so it's better to use them to clean casual messes, instead of constantly using paper towels that sometimes aren't biodegradable, or aren't recycled. Using soap to clean the dish cloth regularly should eliminate the bacteria problem in most cases. But ofc, sometimes using paper towels is better, specially for certain messes like cleaning up after using the toilet, cleaning messes from pets , cleaning certain toxic materials, nail polish, or anything that permanently damages the dish cloth or whatever cloth you use.
Ashurean Aylar önce
I was actually going to comment something along these lines. I feel it's better to have a bunch of towels that you cycle through and wash than to keep buying disposable towels into perpetuity.
Mark Witucke
Mark Witucke 2 aylar önce
Towels rubbed with white soap, then into a weak bleach solution at the end of each day. Bacteria problem solved. -A Cook
Thomas Dohn
Thomas Dohn 2 aylar önce
I just read The Greatest Show On Earth by Richard Dawkins, who outlined this exact experiment. It was amazing to have it vusialized and brought to life here. Thank you for sharing 🙂
Amirreza Azimi
Amirreza Azimi Yıl önce
The professor is so good at explaining what they do and what they have found!
Tony Hakston
Tony Hakston 6 aylar önce
@S.Unosson What you call a small change is actually pretty big. E. coli’s inability to metabolize citrate when exposed to air is notable to the point of being a defining feature of the species. Such a major change honestly warranted speciation. Heck, it’d be a big thing even if it weren’t a defining feature. Change in metabolic capability is very difficult to develop, which is why pandas STILL can’t effectively metabolize plants despite bamboo being their entire diet.
S.Unosson 6 aylar önce
But if the only significant change in 74500 generations is a small change in what these bacteria digest, the logical conclusion is that there did not happen much evolution at all. If that represents 1.1 million years in humans, in what way does it confirm human evolution?
Light Woven
Light Woven 7 aylar önce
@Tony Hakston trolling are we. Guess so bye. Conditionally ofc.
Tony Hakston
Tony Hakston 7 aylar önce
@Light Woven Do you not know what a prerequisite is? Because that’s the only way your response makes sense in regards to what I said.
Light Woven
Light Woven 7 aylar önce
@Tony Hakston speciation is not the same. There is no change in form, neither in these bacterium or in drosophila. I will point you to the RNA experiments on those pesky flies whereby injection of the most complex eye DNA from the squid shows no modification. This is due to RNA limitation of 'reading'/ignoring sequences. Calling the test an evolution experiment is a misnomer. Generational transformation has not occurred.
Fredward 7 aylar önce
This has to be my favorite video of yours. I have watched it so many times. Not just because of the topic, but because of how it was presented. Every time I watch it, it never gets old. A great video overall.
Timbraska 6 aylar önce
The methods of the experiment really show how old it is. Like all that exachaning fluids by hand, analyzing with colours, counting by hand... Still very impressive that he had the resilience to keep it going.
Philip Dunne
Philip Dunne 5 aylar önce
This experiment is helping to refine the theory of evolution and is raising and answering really interesting questions. Great work.
Apex Wolf
Apex Wolf 7 gün önce
The patience and commitment of these scientists is just blowing my mind ! Imagine you are observing same bacteria for 33 years . This person spend his whole life on this for the good of humanity . King 👑
Just a Dummy
Just a Dummy Yıl önce
People miss that the opening video of the Antibacterial-Resistant Bacteria showcases exactly why you shouldn’t overuse antibiotics.
Wolfette Plays
Wolfette Plays 22 gün önce
GamePhysics 2 aylar önce
This is freaking amazing! Counting by hand when you have cameras and computers seems a bit oldschool, but I can respect the ritual.
Publio_Cornelio_Scipione 98
Has anyone ever thought of colony counting with software to which the images of the samples are subjected?
Cody Goza
Cody Goza 5 aylar önce
That professor's passion and the way he explained things made me more interested in science than anything else has before. Very understandable.
Alex TW
Alex TW 2 aylar önce
So fascinating and great testament to the dedication of the professor. I did start to wonder if despite the extremely controlled environment there are in fact some uncontrolled aspects influencing evolution. For example, if the lab techs tend to select solution from the bottom of the flask could they be selecting for bacteria that tends to grow under greater pressure? Not suggesting this is the case and such a hypothesis could be confounded by a systematic shaking of the flask but anyway, just a thought-provoking experiment/video all around.
Sciencerely Yıl önce
As a human biologist, I think there are also astonishing examples of rapid evolution in humans. To give an example, a mutation occurred roughly 20 000 years ago in Europe which made people lactose tolerant. Since lactose tolerance supported survival during repeated periods of starvation, it rapidly spread to different populations and contributed to greater population growth (I made a video about this ). This mutation was so successful that we can find it in the majority of all people of European descent today!
Thành Vinh Nguyên Tô
What? I've always thought lactose intolerance was a rare thing. Milk is just so good
Jenbo 5 aylar önce
3@Insertia Nameia You are describing almost exactly my lactose intolerance. I can't drink straight milk but take it in tea. I do avoid yogurts though. Cheeses I used to be able to eat but with age I avoid the softer cheeses like Brie and Camembert and stick to harder cheeses such Cheddar and Edam. I didn't get the runs either but would get a very uncomfortable heavy feeling in the intestine region I didn't throw up except for once when tried milk for the lactose intolerant which had expired, as it didn't taste sour or off I had inadvertently drunk it. Hot chocolate and milkshakes I wouldn't dream of drinking. Nut milks are ok but they come in litre packs which is too much for my consummation as they only keep for 4 to 5 days. I suffer from osteoporosis and my bone doctor told me to eat plenty of dairy products presumably because of the vitamin D content but apparently it is not the best source of vitamin D (D2) as the high proportion of protein content of milk prevents efficient absorption . Much better vitamin D sources are sardines, mackerel cods' liver, salmon (smoked and fresh) and other oily fish - oysters and and probably caviar are quite good too !!! They contain vitamin D3 which is more easily absorbed. Well enough said. Remember that chocolate milk doesn' t come from brown cows.!!
boo Jay
boo Jay 5 aylar önce
Would be cool to see another video like this with Will Ratcliff who is doing a similar experiment with yeast to unravel the evolution of multicellularity. Sean Carroll did a podcast interview with Will which I highly recommend on Mindscape, but I'd like to see the Veritasium treatment to get more animations and visuals of the experiments.
Fraser3005 Aylar önce
Absolutely amazing. It’s the kind of science you might not even consider, but to be able to quantify evolution….just imagine the things humans could achieve if we can just avoid destroying ourselves first
Matthew02 Aylar önce
So many questions... I wish I had a direct line to Prof. Lenski. I am curious if he hypothesizes that there is a singular "best-fit" model of DNA for the bacteria in the study. Is the growth medium controlled tightly enough for this to even be feasible? Is it possible to reach that singularity? How long might it take?
sylvain raynaud
sylvain raynaud Aylar önce
The conclusion on never ending improvement would be interesting to put in perspective by comparing the robustness/adaptability to other environments of the ancestors versus specialized offsprings. Is the most evolved also the most fragile ??
TechSource Yıl önce
Absolutely loving these videos man. Keep up the grind!!!
Dawn Ripper
Dawn Ripper Yıl önce
Yo, you're still alive? Haven't seen one of your videos since you got robbed cuz YT stopped recommending.
devysk Yıl önce
make me a pc
MASTER nobody
MASTER nobody Yıl önce
I dont like theory of evolution exist it is wrong science
Curious Doc
Curious Doc Yıl önce
The Prof is such an engaging speaker! I could hear him talk science all day
pazonk Yıl önce
What is secksource doing here
Caleb Brown
Caleb Brown 16 gün önce
This was mind blowing and jaw dropping. It gives me a whole new view on evolution.
Sodeep 2 aylar önce
Cool experiment. My only concern is if human error can be produced faster than bacteria mutation. Too much lab work not to mess it up and contaminate once.
David Schmidt
David Schmidt 7 aylar önce
It's fascinating to hear a scientist at his level speak is entrancing. He's speaking from sheer, pure, accumulated knowledge and experience.
Infinite Nothingness
Infinite Nothingness 4 aylar önce
I love Veritasium's videos. I just can't think about anything else while being glued to my screen and then I realize how much time has passed.
Jorge Antonio Hernandez Navarrete
That freezing bacteria technique, sounds like a Git for biologists.
NightEule5 Yıl önce
@MASTER nobody Ok? What makes it wrong?
NightEule5 Yıl önce
pretty much
Juan Iglesias
Juan Iglesias Yıl önce
@Vigilant Cosmic Penguin tbh i'm slightly concerned about pushing to master. what if we end up with an e coli super race dominating our citrus fruits?
Vigilant Cosmic Penguin
The only difference being you don't have to worry about accidentally pushing something to master.
Mick ALLEN 2 aylar önce
Brilliant presentation, very incitefull, evolution is a fascinating topic.
Mike Hughes
Mike Hughes 6 aylar önce
At first I thought the fluorescent material would move with the bacteria as in a local pattern. I didn’t realize there’d be this symbiotic relationship with humans…
John Giallanza
John Giallanza 4 aylar önce
Veritasium's videos are always great, but 'bacteria Fight Club' took it to the next level. Bravo!
Triairius 2 aylar önce
Wow. This is an incredible experiment! So freaking cool!
Jani Kärkkäinen
I love how Dr. Lenski is really happy and visibly proud of the work he and his team has done, while at the same time giving a very humble and down to earth aura.
FiveHiveMind 9 aylar önce
@Tyrell Wellick So, to sum up, you are claiming that Lenski is either wrong or lying, or am I misunderstanding you?
FiveHiveMind 9 aylar önce
@Tyrell Wellick I never said Darwinism wasn't a word. You do realize evolutionary theory is referred to as the modern synthesis, right?
13minutestomidnight 4 aylar önce
This experiment is very informative and provides a lot of data on adaptation over generations, but the COVID-19 pandemic pretty much recreated the experiment, except with humanity as the petri dish. Essentially, with the high human population, and especially the high density living in cities, humans created a situation where the virus had an incredibly high rate of transmission and access to new energy sources when they colonised a person, which allowed the virus to spread and mutate at an exponential rate. Admittedly, it;s a bit different from the experiment, because the immune system (and later, the vaccines) challenged the colonisation and persistence of the virus within each individual human, and each human had a slightly different assortment of genes that could impact the virus's environmental parameters, but it's pretty similar. Only density of living and protocols for pandemic management (like masks and social distancing) would alter the external circumstances. Well, It's very interesting scientifically, but I'd rather our governments learn from this how easy it is for human communities to become petri dishes for pathogenic microbes, and how to prevent disease clusters from mirroring this experiment. ...Or more accurately: why to listen to their virology and epidemiology experts *cough*
Has Lenski been testing for 'ability to stick to a pipette' fitness? Also, if they haven't already, the biologists in Lenski's lab would benefit from collaboration with with ML experts if their goal is system modeling. ML folks will have a much more sophisticated understanding of how to approach this based on GANs, gradient decent phenomenon, local maximums, degrees of freedom etc.
Michaël Katgerman
Michaël Katgerman 6 aylar önce
Nice Video 💦 Nice to know that these bacteria (test objects from nature) change in a closed environment and that is "naturally" checked in this laboratory. Have they also tested it with other conditions like light and nutrition that anyone knows? Greetzz MiKa
Anki 5 aylar önce
If I may add my modest pow to the experiment, wouldn't be interesting to give the E.Coli bacteria some challenges to overcome? Like adding an hostile element in the solution or other type of obstacles. If the solution is a perfect environment for the bacteria to reproduce, then it has less way to keep a mutation that could prove effective against certain types of enemies or hostile environments. The way I understand this experiment, is that the Bacteria is comfortably sitting on a couch while it gets fed generation after generation. Maybe providing a challenge would made it easier to spot, or even encourage mutations! Then again, I'm nobody. Fascinating experiment nonetheless :)
Just Some Guy without a Mustache
A wise man once said: "Life finds a way."
360dec!mated 3 aylar önce
-Scientist from Jurassic World
Mr. Cool
Mr. Cool 4 aylar önce
Naymy 4 aylar önce
And don't forget, a wiser man once wrote it.
steve steve
steve steve 4 aylar önce
@Average Alien He's the opposite of wise
Skull Cleaver
Skull Cleaver 4 aylar önce
No sir, a mustache finds a way.
Rayniac Aylar önce
I wanted to know more about the bacteria strain that learned to consume the citrate. What were the mutations required to do that? Doesn't that require a whole host of new enzymes that in turn require thousands upon thousands of random iterations before they finally start doing "the thing"? It can't have all been just a single mutation...
BCOZMUSIC Aylar önce
Wait so are you telling me, if we had enough solution we could fill the Universe with life in 42 days?! I know it's not exactly that simple but that's pretty mind blowing!
SirPano85 7 aylar önce
I work for the italian agriculture research council (CREA) like an agricultural worker and just to know we too do evolution experiments, for example we took differents populations of ancient grain and we cultiveted in 2 opposite side of Italy (near Bologna and the other one in Sicily), after some years of that the researcher looked what was changed in the two different environment, this is still running so we will see.
Tomi 3 aylar önce
Thats awesome. Saluti da Slovenia ;)
Cherri Berri
Cherri Berri 5 aylar önce
WOAH! Pure chance, but as soon as I heard citrate was in the solution I thought to myself that that would be a secondary carbon source and that they'd oughtta keep an eye on it. Awesome!
Sean Cullen
Sean Cullen Yıl önce
This video is a great example of why we should never stop funding basic science.
Wolfette Plays
Wolfette Plays 22 gün önce
@Fat Birb that was a fixed trial
Wolfette Plays
Wolfette Plays 22 gün önce
@IExist and how do you know the powers at be aren’t making everything up wholesale? Exactly. You don’t.
Wolfette Plays
Wolfette Plays 22 gün önce
@Sean Cullen that would be a net positive overall, we’d all be living far simpler lives and we wouldn’t be reliant on hedonism and constantly overdosing on dopamine
Doug Narby
Doug Narby 6 aylar önce
Does mutation in this context mean any difference from the parent cells, or actual mutation due to the impact of an outside agent like cosmic rays, etc?
Aidan Killeen
Aidan Killeen 6 aylar önce
That's incredible! At first, I really didn't think this would be very interesting, but it sure is a good thing that guy kept the project going.
Cernunnos Aylar önce
Great proof of practice in observing evolution. Just take these finds to the next level and applied all living things, and you got good explanations.
Godwin Igiri
Godwin Igiri 6 aylar önce
I wish that they could trace bacterial haplotypes from this experiment. This could clarify some of our assumptions about human haplogroups.
LittleLight Yıl önce
he was so happy to tell someone about his experiment, made my heart warm xD
Idjles Erle
Idjles Erle 6 aylar önce
And to tell someone who would gift him millions of views.
Thalassaer 8 aylar önce
@sr1nu fix your irritable mood
twinxcloudy! 8 aylar önce
@sr1nu xD doesn't mean laugh
Luneytoon 4 aylar önce
This channel is awesome! Even the people you interview are so passionate
TuxCommander Aylar önce
I just love this ads with total realistic examples and sample situations which are for sure not staged. Helps to hold up sympathy and did not harm your credibility. You really love your blue t-shirt.
Rony B Chandran
Rony B Chandran 6 aylar önce
33 years of forcing that bacteria to become something super? I find it super dangerous with my 30 years experience of watching Hollywood movies 😁 BTW, with respect, appreciates the idea and effort.
YoniMek 5 aylar önce
I like how the researcher at the end gets so excited by the extrapolation power of his power curve. Still, a profound finding.
Indigo Yıl önce
This is one of the strangest TRvid sponsorships I've seen in a while. Almost as strange as when literally everyone suddenly made videos about Dyson vacuums a few years ago
I'm not arrogant, I'm just better than you.
@Lucien Hughes "No one is getting seriously ill from using reusable dishcloths." No one, really? Wouldn't that depend on how reusable dishcloths are being used and the type of microbes being spread? I assume you have some empirical evidence for your contention.
Xplora213 Yıl önce
Video on viruses... paper towel 🧻 sounds like a great combo to me.
Jelmer Yıl önce
@Jake Hix Can't you see whats wrong with your statement? Youre practically saying "This is far more disruptive and wasteful than that, so we should focus on this first before we can work on that" if we want to combat waste and environmental damage we should focus on as much as possible at a time. Because by the time you get to the second problem it would've probably spun out of control by then. By the way.. that means 3.600.000.000 kg's or 7.800.000.000 pounds of paper towels are NOT getting recycled and probably ending up in landfills.. and were talking from the US alone...
God 2: Electric Boogaloo
didn't veritasium get sponsored by google one time?
ggg Yıl önce
It’s weird that he accepted, knowing that disposables are contributing to global warming
Voodoo Pig
Voodoo Pig 6 aylar önce
Wait, if in 42 days those bacteria would fill the observable universe, then wouldn't they have travelled like, a BAZILLION times faster than the speed of light? They reached ultra luminous speeds simply through pushing and shoving? Sounds iffy... ;-D
PinusMugo 6 aylar önce
It is so nice to hear people lifes observations and experiences in science. Powerfull stuff. I learned so much. :)
Ed Ku
Ed Ku 6 aylar önce
Great enthusiastic scientist. You can tell that he has his whole heart into this project. Thank you.
ChrisBrengel 6 aylar önce
Very fortunate is the man (person) who loves his job!
Feeding Ravens
Feeding Ravens 6 aylar önce
My impression is that it is not only so that the copying method makes different errorrs (mutations), so that the organism can adapt to new environments, it is also so that the copying mechanism fluctuates, varies in the number of errors it makes. In times of a stable environment, the variants that produce only a small number of errors are favoured, as they keep the variations around the optimally adapted form of the organism small. But this error number variation may never stop fluctuating, because in the moment a bigger change of the environment occurs, you need the ability to quickly broaden the width of variations to "find" a quick solution for the new environment; and when the adaptation is complete, the low-range variation will become stronger again.
Nunya Business
Nunya Business Yıl önce
“progress would probably never stop even in a constant environment” now that is really interesting
S.Unosson Yıl önce
6:15 “Maybe half of those mutations have no effect whatsoever.” 6:32 ”Another half of the mutations may actually be deleterious mutations and they make the bacteria an inferior competitor.” 6:38 “But there is maybe out of those million mutations that occur every day, maybe there is ten, maybe there is a hundred, maybe there is a thousand of them that actually change something in the cell that gives the bacteria a competitive advantage over their progenitors.” 13:44 “If the mutation rate is too high, then the offspring has too many deleterious mutations.” So the overwhelming majority of mutations that occur are either neutral or harmful, so harmful that ‘if the mutation rate is too high, then too many deleterious mutations occur.’ Natural selection acts as well on harmful mutations as on beneficial ones. In other words, the accumulation of harmful mutations must damage the organisms so much that it cannot be compensated by the few beneficial mutations that happen. The original bacteria would have an advantage to survive.
OvenCake Yıl önce
@Ladnilsee, I was under the impression that technological progress generally followed an exponential curve, despite the fluctuations from breakthroughs and stagnation. this video suggests that the rate of technological progress will decrease eventually, and improvements in a field will stagnant. if a scientific field is analogous to that constant environment the bacteria are in, then we would expect to find progress will slow down, like having diminishing returns, until that field is expanded and the environment changes.
Yvolve Yıl önce
@arisoda But nothing does anything ad infinitum and nothing is ad infinitum, so you're right in theory, but not in practice.
Niki Bronson
Niki Bronson Yıl önce
@listener Now that sentiment i agree with (I get the sarcasm). Have a good one.
listener Yıl önce
@Niki Bronson sorry, that I did not made my observations on this video clear enough. But now - sorry, I have to go outdoors, so I'll qote some meme: Life is shortMake sure you spend as much time as possible on the internet arguing with strangers about politics.
RocketJo86 4 aylar önce
This is really interesting, because I always imagined evolution as something that just happens. It can be accelerated by events and co-evolution, but it will happen all the time regardless, just by chance. But there seem to be a lot of people put there who can't or won't understand that more or less mathematical part of evolution. I had a discussion in a reddit grou about closed natural ecospheres and that there are some out there which lasted for several decades as of now. And one user wondered if evolution in a closed jar, just getting light as an energy source from the outside will be possible. And for some reason there where two diffrent train of thoughts present within the commentors. One that was unsure, but liked to play with the idea that life in those jars would be able to evolve and adapt. And the other - for some reason bigger - group that absolutly dismissed this idea, as there would be no way of mutating (because there aren't any mutagens or competition happening). But competition doesn't mean predation and they totally forgot that mutation don't necessarily need mutagens, just chance to happen. So there would be no reason not to think that all this algae and bacteria and coepods would not evolve. Sure, they would not start a civilization. But they will adapt to that stable, limited envronment just like the E. Coli did. I guess.
john doe
john doe 2 aylar önce
there is competition still? in this instance, the bacteria compete against eachother in the race against time. food isn't the limiting factor. it's time and space. what do you think?
ricrometv1 8 aylar önce
I didn’t get if the bacteria managed to evolve the ability to consume the second source of energy again or not. Thoughts?
PrinceJack 2 aylar önce
The part of the video that talks about E. coli evolving to consume citrate rang a bell for me. I think I heard about this before in video debunking creationism. But I have to ask - is that bacterium still E. coli, or is it fair to say that it is an entirely new species?
Late 2 aylar önce
Taxonomy is especially hard when it comes to bacteria, because they don't reproduce sexually.
Soham Acharya
Soham Acharya 2 aylar önce
A subspecies perhaps, but I doubt an entirely new species. Taxonomy is hard.
Jason Tufts
Jason Tufts 6 aylar önce
That would be an experiment worth doing, even if others see it as un-needed knowing why or how evolution takes place and what can come of it can lead to a very important branch of knowledge and hopefully let us understand our own evolution. I do hope their team keeps the experiment running as they chose a medium that evolves far quicker then humans, so it will give far more data. I just hope more interesting data comes out of it in the long run.
Marc Crockett
Marc Crockett 9 aylar önce
When people are as passionate as Prof. Richard Lenski, you can't help but want to learn/ hear more
Steve Winans
Steve Winans Aylar önce
is it Richard Lenski?
Thomas S.
Thomas S. 6 aylar önce
@John Doe how so?
John Doe
John Doe 6 aylar önce
Sad that such passion is under full-scale assault in the West.
Drew Withington
Drew Withington 7 aylar önce
He has a wonderful mind.
Who the He** do you think I am?
A meticulous process that takes pure dedication.
Sanjay Pandey
Sanjay Pandey 6 aylar önce
The video was awesome and all, but the thing that most surprised me is Veritasium's (or even TRvid's) evolution. Never had I expected to see such a short sponsor.
superGMoney 5 aylar önce
I would check out updates on this daily!! Have they started to eat through the plastic yet? Hold on I have a knock at the door - It's the bacteria!!! Seriously tho this experiment needs it's own channel! ❤ G
Kokonut Binks
Kokonut Binks 5 aylar önce
We went over this experiment in our college Evolution course a few weeks ago.
J 2 aylar önce
8:21 “And that gives us an ability called time travel.” -A wise man
Andre Angelo
Andre Angelo 7 aylar önce
This video was just amazing! Thank you for that!
Thomas Trotter
Thomas Trotter 6 aylar önce
Fascinating stuff, as usual. Thanks! 👍
venki Perni
venki Perni 6 aylar önce
Thank you for sharing this with the world.
a s
a s Yıl önce
It is so incredibly satisfying to hear a relaxed researcher talk. Great interview!
Nicholas Geere
Nicholas Geere Yıl önce
Idk how hes so relaxed knowing hes growing literal super ecoli
Elle van Veelen
Elle van Veelen Yıl önce
You might like the youtuber The Thought Emporium in that case.
S F Yıl önce
I agree. It would have been totally different if he was talking in the lab
murderdogg 6 aylar önce
7:57 looks like a -80°C freezer to me. Also, Veritasium channel and Derek are really, really on the top level of TRvid science vids.
Robert Bolding
Robert Bolding 6 aylar önce
as an example, Streptococcus pyogenes has been treated with penicillin for 70 years and is always 100 percent of the time killed by it. it only survives when it stops dividing by another mechanism not related to antibiotics.
Lachie Perrem
Lachie Perrem 5 aylar önce
I don't care how many times I watched veritasium videos they always blow my mind
Joe Beaudette
Joe Beaudette 6 aylar önce
This video is wonderful. I actually feel bad for creationists because this… this is divine beauty.
Plum Amazing
Plum Amazing Yıl önce
It sounds like the bacteria developed telepathy strong enough to get these humans to work to feed them yummy stuff for 30 years.
TheGreatMoonFrog 4 aylar önce
This was life's long term game. Evolve some bacteria that can work together and eventually create complex life. Then have those complex colonies of bacteria evolve in complexity until the colonies start working together with other colonies. Keep doing that until some colonies of bacteria are so complex they want to feed the single celled bacteria in perfectly safe utopias. Long term victory.
Fuzzy Ankles
Fuzzy Ankles Yıl önce
when you look at that TED talk about bacteria communication.... its not so far from truth. "How bacteria "talk" - Bonnie Bassler"
Rodrigo Bittar
Rodrigo Bittar Yıl önce
If that's the case, that'll be a damn risky game for bacteria. I mean all of them developing telepathy for only 1% of them actually getting any yummy stuff. The rest 99% of them went to bacterial crematory 🔥.
Sakata Gintoki
Sakata Gintoki Yıl önce
1.5 million years in bacteria timeline
A K Yıl önce
jq4t49f3 6 aylar önce
Your Bounty experiment raises some questions: how did humans survive despite bacterial onslaughts without Bounty? Does avarice overpower rationality in scientists? Not your usual high standard.
Leo B
Leo B 6 aylar önce
Imagine when one of the bacteria decides to eat glass. Anyway, that was an amazing video and experiment!
Mickelodian Surname
Mickelodian Surname 6 aylar önce
There are bacteria that have evolved to consume polymers like plastic... glass is a rather unique structure but it does contain silicates and potash and limestone... You can force bacteria to select for gaining energy from those things. So yeah, thats not as far fetched as you might think. WHY anyone would find it useful I have no idea. Generally speaking its a lot cheaper to simply genetically modify bacteria these days without going through millions of generations of evolutionary selection.
slicker 1
slicker 1 6 aylar önce
I was a little late to this video and it was a good one and scary too ! With your sponsor Bounty, I was surprised that you didn't show us how good it was at picking up the florescent dust ? I thought that was the whole idea ???
Ondra Pšenička
Ondra Pšenička 4 aylar önce
Even in the absence of an environmental change, there are so many opportunities of smaller and smaller magnitude to continue to make progress that in fact progress would probably NEVER stop even in a constant environment. So much understanding in one sentence...
David Spector
David Spector 4 aylar önce
Yes, it's how we evolved from bacteria-like progenitors, and how further evolution will produce even better adaptable organisms millions of years in the future, if we survive current and future challenges at all.
sku tny
sku tny Yıl önce
Everyone gangsta till the bacteria starts eating glass
Wolfette Plays
Wolfette Plays 22 gün önce
@Appletank8 good thing pasteurization isn’t necessary anyway 😂
Wolfette Plays
Wolfette Plays 22 gün önce
@T P that’s a false equivalency
W J Yıl önce
It could happen.
Mubashar Inayat
Mubashar Inayat Yıl önce
Or it escape the lab and start a pandemic.
Broockle Yıl önce
@S Holmén u mean the ones that would use silicon to build DNA? It was always a coot idea.
Vincent Wolf
Vincent Wolf 3 aylar önce
this is true and every time we take vaccines or get sick with a new virus we survive from we contribute to our own evolution.
Oleran 6 aylar önce
I wonder if any of those mutations could be profoundly beneficial to humans.
Stephen Collins
Stephen Collins 3 aylar önce
Now I'm wondering if you can model these populations with a logistic map in some way...
Gerald Corona
Gerald Corona 7 aylar önce
Actually The Earth is running the "Longest Running Evolution Experiment" (that we know of). Lol. No but, that lab experiment really is very impressive!!
Scenic Fights
Scenic Fights Yıl önce
Science is so fascinating. Prof. Richard Lenski is just so easy to listen to. Great job guys!
Sophie Robinson
Sophie Robinson Yıl önce
30 years in the lab. Wonder what he looked like when he started? A straight-backed young man of thirty, with dark brown hair and no beard?
Holar Yıl önce
@Arthur Marcil 8:35
Jackson Daly
Jackson Daly Yıl önce
@Arañay Unsombrero to
acidsaint Yıl önce
i want him to be my grandpa so i can listen to him talk about microbiology all day
Pak Dosen
Pak Dosen Yıl önce
Agree. English is my 2nd language and I'm not even from microbiology or medical background but I fully understand his explanation. Way to go!
DCMPSaliva 7 aylar önce
This is really and interesting and cool, I really hope they don’t do this with a virus and accidentally release it
Ryan Paul (OneEyed)
Ryan Paul (OneEyed) 4 aylar önce
So basically, in order to adapt to life on Mars, we need to actually put ourselves in said environment to elicit (relatively) quick adaptation through evolution.
unholy7 6 aylar önce
I love seeing people discuss something they are passionate about. I'll listen. I don't care if it's star wars or bacteria.
Human Games
Human Games 6 aylar önce
How do you know when you mix them during the incubation that they dont change color to what you mixed them with?
Daveo Spurple
Daveo Spurple Yıl önce
I could listen to Prof. Richard Lenski talk about evolution for hours. I love hearing someone passionately talk about something they love.
marw Yıl önce
stokkie01 Yıl önce
Fully agree, he is really passionate about this. I can imagine that it is really hard for him to talk about this in real life. People that do not understand the subject or are not interested.
ליאם אברהם
Hypothetically, if the experiment would go on for millions of years, maybe even billions, unstopped and uninterrupted, is it possible that one mutation would develop such as much as the one contributing to the evolution of the entire species on earth? Would another kind of human beings be able to develop in such a theoretical experiment under the same conditions? That's quite interesting, to say the least...
Gandalf Aylar önce
You need a natural selector (unnatural selection is not allowed due to we can't interfere), so under the same conditions mutations will occur but they will not be selected unless conditions change.
Cloud Of Time
Cloud Of Time 6 aylar önce
Was the kitchen checked with the light before the powder was placed? Also, does freezing the bacteria cause it any damage? Did they have the competition between frozen bacteria and never frozen bacteria?
giveme5mins 6 aylar önce
Oh wow! Hyper Mutabilty. Love these segments that talk about, (power law), models we only hear about in school.
Telu Dumitru
Telu Dumitru 6 aylar önce
This is an example of the quintessential researcher, where smarts, perseverance and enthusiasm go hand in hand to create something wonderful and advance our common knowledge. People like this keep the hope alive that research in academia is not completely lost to wokeness.
Birding with Rishabh Ghoshal
I hope this team gets recognised for the way in which they have experimentally proven some of the postulates we take for granted, in Biology. Keeping a Biology experiment running for 33 years, with constant monitoring of conditions, is no joke.
TravisBickle Popsicle
@Doug Stevens That's true, I don't have 100% certainty that there is no Designer. No one knows one way or the other, really, which is why I don't understand how some people claim with 100% certainty that there is a Designer.
TravisBickle Popsicle
@Doug Stevens Now you're telling me what my own opinions are. How do you think that's gonna work out for you? 'A designer is not clearly observable in the product' Right. No evidence. Maybe it's just your opinion that a designer was involved?
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