The 4 things it takes to be an expert

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Which experts have real expertise? This video is sponsored by Brilliant. The first 200 people to sign up via brilliant.org/veritasium get 20% off a yearly subscription.

Thanks to www.chess24.com/ and Chessable for the clip of Magnus.

Chase, W. G., & Simon, H. A. (1973). Perception in chess. Cognitive psychology, 4(1), 55-81. - ve42.co/chess1

Calderwood, R., Klein, G. A., & Crandall, B. W. (1988). Time pressure, skill, and move quality in chess. The American Journal of Psychology, 481-493. - ve42.co/chess2

Hogarth, R. M., Lejarraga, T., & Soyer, E. (2015). The two settings of kind and wicked learning environments. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 24(5), 379-385. - ve42.co/Hogarth

Ægisdóttir, S., White, M. J., Spengler, P. M., Maugherman, A. S., Anderson, L. A., Cook, R. S., ... & Rush, J. D. (2006). The meta-analysis of clinical judgment project: Fifty-six years of accumulated research on clinical versus statistical prediction. The Counseling Psychologist, 34(3), 341-382. - ve42.co/anderson1

Ericsson, K. A. (2015). Acquisition and maintenance of medical expertise: a perspective from the expert-performance approach with deliberate practice. Academic Medicine, 90(11), 1471-1486. - ve42.co/anderson2

Goldberg, S. B., Rousmaniere, T., Miller, S. D., Whipple, J., Nielsen, S. L., Hoyt, W. T., & Wampold, B. E. (2016). Do psychotherapists improve with time and experience? A longitudinal analysis of outcomes in a clinical setting. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 63(1), 1. - ve42.co/goldberg1

Ericsson, K. A., Krampe, R. T., & Tesch-Römer, C. (1993). The role of deliberate practice in the acquisition of expert performance. Psychological Review, 100(3), 363. - ve42.co/anderson3

Egan, D. E., & Schwartz, B. J. (1979). Chunking in recall of symbolic drawings. Memory & Cognition, 7(2), 149-158. - ve42.co/chunking1

Tetlock, P. E. (2017). Expert political judgment. In Expert Political Judgment. Princeton University Press. - ve42.co/Tetlock

Melton, R. S. (1952). A comparison of clinical and actuarial methods of prediction with an assessment of the relative accuracy of different clinicians. Unpublished Ph.D. thesis, University of Minnesota.

Meehl, E. P. (1954). Clinical versus Statistical Prediction: A Theoretical Analysis and a Review of the Evidence. University of Minnesota Press. - ve42.co/Meehl1954

Kahneman, D. (2011). Thinking, fast and slow. Farrar, Straus and Giroux. - ve42.co/Kahneman

Special thanks to Patreon supporters: RayJ Johnson, Brian Busbee, Jerome Barakos M.D., Amadeo Bee, Julian Lee, Inconcision, TTST, Balkrishna Heroor, Chris LaClair, Avi Yashchin, John H. Austin, Jr., OnlineBookClub.org, Matthew Gonzalez, Eric Sexton, john kiehl, Diffbot, Gnare, Dave Kircher, Burt Humburg, Blake Byers, Dumky, Evgeny Skvortsov, Meekay, Bill Linder, Paul Peijzel, Josh Hibschman, Timothy O’Brien, Mac Malkawi, Michael Schneider, jim buckmaster, Juan Benet, Ruslan Khroma, Robert Blum, Richard Sundvall, Lee Redden, Vincent, Stephen Wilcox, Marinus Kuivenhoven, Michael Krugman, Cy 'kkm' K'Nelson, Sam Lutfi, Ron Neal

Written by Derek Muller and Petr Lebedev
Animation by Ivy Tello and Fabio Albertelli
Filmed by Derek Muller and Raquel Nuno
Additional video/photos supplied by Getty Images
Music from Epidemic Sound ( ve42.co/music )
Produced by Derek Muller, Petr Lebedev, and Emily Zhang



1 Ağu 2022




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The pattern recognition became very clear to me when I learned Morse code. The human brain takes 50 milliseconds to process and understand a sound. People regularly send and receive Morse code at 30 words per minute, which puts the dit character and the gap between all characters at 40 milliseconds. So you literally have to process sounds faster than the brain can recognize them. Over time you start to hear whole words in the code rather than individual letters, but you still have to decode call signs character by character. You basically cache the sounds in your brain without processing them, and once the whole set of characters passes, your brain is able to turn it into an idea and add it to the stack of previous ideas while your ears are already caching the next set of characters.
Sameh Ismail
Sameh Ismail 21 gün önce
Interesting to think about this in the context of my own field: Computer Science. Especially when writing code, it does illuminate some things for me. I work with a lot of scientist from other fields who mostly write software as a tool for expressing ideas from their respective fields. Most of them have had little to no formal training in writing code before starting to work. What I notice is that these people fairly easy learn how to avoid bugs and write code that executes, but are terrible at preventing structural issues (e.g. does this software scale easily or how easy is it to add new functionality in the future). The timely feedback issue seems crititcal here. When trying to write code that executes, the feedback is almost immediate: The software returns an error on running or it doesn't. The structural problems however aren't evaluated by any immediate system or even at all (especially for people who's main area of expertise is actually not software).
I will really like more details on this, I'm new to trading and I don't understand how it really works. Can someone guide me on the right | approach to investing and making good profit from trading?
"Don't get comfortable" is a lesson I'd like to drive home by this statistic: some 70-90% of accidental finger amputations happen at 2 ages, 16 and 60. All the time in between those ages is marked by remarkably safe individuals who go their entire career without a single incident. Before and after those ages is when nearly every finger is removed via
ONAR Occasionally Needs A Restart
I recently had a MASSIVE argument with my university because they repeatedly did not provide any feedback to essays or exams. Just a mark and that's it. I backed my perspective with a ton of academic works on education, that I doubt any of them ever read.
Sen千 28 gün önce
I think without love and obsession for what you do, those steps can feel unbearable. If you love what you do deeply and are obsessed with it... being uncomfortable is not even that bad. It's like Kobe Bryant tearing his achilles, shooting free throws and walking off the court.. He said that when the game is the most important, you don't even feel the pain. I'm sure he's been in pain and uncomfortable a whole lot in his career but he LOVED the game of basketball too much to even care about the discomfort. He was obsessed.
The beginning section of this where you cover the chess players and discuss chunking reminds me a lot of what I tell people about typing and typists. Those who can type the fastest, don't think in letters when they type, they think in words there fingers just know where to go. Where as slower typers tend to type based on each letter, and have to work their thought process through each letter, then the corresponding key on the keyboard. Just figured I'd drop another analogy or method of describing it for others.
-]Na[-NoMaD 28 gün önce
The preselection example reminds me of something I went through in high school, our education system is divided in 4 steps (there is more but the rest is irrelevant here)
Alve Svarén
As a software developer, I really feel that I get better at solving problems using my intuition, and all the 4 concepts you listed in this video matches my experience perfectly.
Tommy Wyderko
Tommy Wyderko 28 gün önce
I love this video, the part that hit home for me was when you talked about the idea doing things that are uncomfortable to really cross that threshold of becoming an expert. As a dancer, this resonates, because everything we do feels awkward, strange and even uncomfortable until you get used to it over time. I'm curious what the the threshold is for what i call "productive discomfort". Like you, I also play guitar and mostly the same stuff I've played since high school because it is comfortable. Personally, I like to allocate my discomfort to the activities where I really want to push myself, but I'm curious if there is any science to this idea of "allocating discomfort" that ive made up for myself. Would love a future video exploring that topic. Excellent video tho, I plan to show it to all of my students!
The Four Things are:
Ernst Schneider
Ernst Schneider Gün önce
I really thank you so much and I will forever appreciate this channel , you ve helped me and my family a lot in your videos, In your advice,lesson and funny words are really inspirational and helpful .my family and i have been able to minimal,conscious in spending,saving and investing wisely,I now earns every week you're sure a blessing to this generation,we really love you
Areteisready 20 saatler önce
As always, your videos are so much more than the title suggests. Thank you for the value you've given my life over the years of watching your videos.
James Bradley
“Success seems to be connected with action. Successful people keep moving. They make mistakes, but they don’t quit.”
Teh Yong Lip
Teh Yong Lip 14 gün önce
I really love the way you compare and contrast the nature of professions from various fields, it's extremely helpful!
ShawnDP 20 saatler önce
What Magnus Carlsen also has is talent, something not to be overlooked
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