Optimising a Magnetic Launcher

Tom Stanton
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25 Kas 2021




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Tom Stanton
Tom Stanton Aylar önce
Offset your carbon footprint with me on Wren! We'll plant 10 extra trees for the first 100 people who sign up! www.wren.co/start/tomstanton
Edward VanNoy
Edward VanNoy 18 gün önce
Very interesting Experiments like this make me feel that "free energy" is possible, but being withheld by the big banks,big oil and power companies. What do you think.
Mat Mamat
Mat Mamat 22 gün önce
When are you Gonna make artificial Gravity concept in 3D or prototypes waiting it to be made of the unsolved problems! That would be Great in terms of real life Science!! Thanks!
Nou Uon
Nou Uon Aylar önce
@Cristian Pop it would be interesting
Cristian Pop
Cristian Pop Aylar önce
Hi Tom! Can you look into making a bladeless drone, similar to the Dyson purifiers? I'm curios if it would fly and how efficient it is.
TrickyNekro ́s ELab
Try, instead of having a capacitor bank, to put your capacitors spread along the coils / switches under the rail, that should help. The rabbit hole can go a lot deeper. The problem is not only the resistance of the wires but also their own inductance. Also, I do not know if you do, but try using dedicated mosfet drivers instead of microcontroller pins. The harder you switch them, the less energy is going to be wasted on heat. Don´t forget the flyback diodes!
Nicholas Rehm
Nicholas Rehm Aylar önce
It’s all fun and games at the Nerf match until Tom shows up with a handheld version of this with an automatic trigger and backpack mounted battery
lem on9
lem on9 20 gün önce
He can literally shoot missile
Jalesa Nina
Jalesa Nina Aylar önce
DATING-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------💜 NUDE.SNAPGIRLS.TODAY/SIESTA?DATE-SEX #ライブ配信の再編ありがとうです!#この日のライブ配信は、#かならりやばかったですね!1#万人を超える人が見ていたもんね(笑)#やっぱり人参最高!#まさかのカメラ切り忘れでやら1かしたのもドキドキでした!#今後は気を付けないとね5). . !💖🖤❤#今後は気をライブ配信の再編ありがとうです!#この日のライブ配信は、#1万人を超える人が見ていたも ん(#笑)#やっぱり人参最高!#まさかのカメラ切り忘れでやら1かしたのもドキドキでした #今後は気をライブ配信の再編ありがとうです!( #笑)#垃圾
Derrick Sands
Derrick Sands Aylar önce
This with nerf rival ammo with a steel bearing in the middle
Andrew DeMartino
Andrew DeMartino Aylar önce
ah the kid friendly rail gun
Wing Chung YEUNG
Wing Chung YEUNG Aylar önce
Tom will be nerf for being overpowered
Dan Wood
Dan Wood Aylar önce
That slow motion shot of the launch sled falling away from the glider looked fantastically elegant, awesome project!
Tom Fahey
Tom Fahey Aylar önce
Problem is the sled carries away a whole lot of the gained momentum, rather than it being transferred to the plane itself.
cnmmd qiuoo
cnmmd qiuoo Aylar önce
given current.
Colin Winterburn
Colin Winterburn Aylar önce
Tom is a young man who gives me a positive feeling toward the future. We need to support people like him.
Jalesa Nina
Jalesa Nina Aylar önce
DATING-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------💜 NUDE.SNAPGIRLS.TODAY/SIESTA?DATE-SEX #ライブ配信の再編ありがとうです!#この日のライブ配信は、#かならりやばかったですね!1#万人を超える人が見ていたもんね(笑)#やっぱり人参最高!#まさかのカメラ切り忘れでやら1かしたのもドキドキでした!#今後は気を付けないとね5). . !💖🖤❤#今後は気をライブ配信の再編ありがとうです!#この日のライブ配信は、#1万人を超える人が見ていたも ん(#笑)#やっぱり人参最高!#まさかのカメラ切り忘れでやら1かしたのもドキドキでした #今後は気をライブ配信の再編ありがとうです!( #笑)#垃圾
Greg Petrics
Greg Petrics Aylar önce
But how does it produce value for shareholders?!
Joseph Wisniewski
Joseph Wisniewski Aylar önce
As others have pointed out, you need to either increase coil spacing with distance, or increase your control speed, which means hitting the coils harder down the line. One way to do that is to distribute the capacitor bank down the length of the gun, adding caps as you approach the end. Your existing system is running out of power as the projectile advances, when you want to be increasing power as it advances in a system with constant spacing. One way to advance the design is to simulate the system. There are SPICE models for coils and moving magnets that can help simulate this whole thing. There are also tricks to shunting flyback into the next coil…
Jalesa Nina
Jalesa Nina Aylar önce
DATING-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------💜 NUDE.SNAPGIRLS.TODAY/SIESTA?DATE-SEX #ライブ配信の再編ありがとうです!#この日のライブ配信は、#かならりやばかったですね!1#万人を超える人が見ていたもんね(笑)#やっぱり人参最高!#まさかのカメラ切り忘れでやら1かしたのもドキドキでした!#今後は気を付けないとね5). . !💖🖤❤#今後は気をライブ配信の再編ありがとうです!#この日のライブ配信は、#1万人を超える人が見ていたも ん(#笑)#やっぱり人参最高!#まさかのカメラ切り忘れでやら1かしたのもドキドキでした #今後は気をライブ配信の再編ありがとうです!( #笑)#垃圾
Joseph Wisniewski
Joseph Wisniewski Aylar önce
@Michael Goelz One or the other, yep.
Michael Goelz
Michael Goelz Aylar önce
This guy used the word 'shunt' therefore he either knows his shit or is really bad at insulting people.
cnmmd qiuoo
cnmmd qiuoo Aylar önce
will overall be reduced. Keep up the great content.
Torch & Pitchfork PAC
Love how the spreadsheet graph matches your test data. You might try flipping the sensors so they tell you when the sled is leaving the coil. Then play with successively larger distances between coils as many have commented. The spreadsheet will help maximize acceleration per coil prior to a rebuild. A fixed distance between coils locks in a maximum speed since pulse timing is critical as speed increases.
Jalesa Nina
Jalesa Nina Aylar önce
DATING-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------💜 NUDE.SNAPGIRLS.TODAY/SIESTA?DATE-SEX #ライブ配信の再編ありがとうです!#この日のライブ配信は、#かならりやばかったですね!1#万人を超える人が見ていたもんね(笑)#やっぱり人参最高!#まさかのカメラ切り忘れでやら1かしたのもドキドキでした!#今後は気を付けないとね5). . !💖🖤❤#今後は気をライブ配信の再編ありがとうです!#この日のライブ配信は、#1万人を超える人が見ていたも ん(#笑)#やっぱり人参最高!#まさかのカメラ切り忘れでやら1かしたのもドキドキでした #今後は気をライブ配信の再編ありがとうです!( #笑)#垃圾
M Sachin
M Sachin Aylar önce
Honestly, your channel is such a gold mine. This is one of the best demonstrations of the engineering process at work: you find the issue, you think of a solution, and then you tinker and optimize until you've achieved what you've set out for. You demonstrate this whole process so eloquently in your videos that it's inspiring
Jalesa Nina
Jalesa Nina Aylar önce
DATING-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------💜 NUDE.SNAPGIRLS.TODAY/SIESTA?DATE-SEX #ライブ配信の再編ありがとうです!#この日のライブ配信は、#かならりやばかったですね!1#万人を超える人が見ていたもんね(笑)#やっぱり人参最高!#まさかのカメラ切り忘れでやら1かしたのもドキドキでした!#今後は気を付けないとね5). . !💖🖤❤#今後は気をライブ配信の再編ありがとうです!#この日のライブ配信は、#1万人を超える人が見ていたも ん(#笑)#やっぱり人参最高!#まさかのカメラ切り忘れでやら1かしたのもドキドキでした #今後は気をライブ配信の再編ありがとうです!( #笑)#垃圾
Ivory AS
Ivory AS Aylar önce
M Sachin I honestly find myself impressed half the time I'm watching.
Daniel Keyes
Daniel Keyes Aylar önce
I like that he has brought up excel for all the crap I've built I haven't used it since high school was a great reminder haha!!
Jack Martinelli
Jack Martinelli Aylar önce
But I'll bet it wasn't that easy.
Qwarzz Aylar önce
I especially liked the process of finding an issue, fixing it, begin happy it worked and then figuring out that it worked for completely different reason than what you thought you were doing.
BlenderTimer Aylar önce
The way the sled detached from the glider was amazing!
Cameron Tacklind
Cameron Tacklind Aylar önce
As others have mentioned, kinetic energy goes up with the square of the velocity. Another way to increase power is to add a flux return path for the magnetic fields. There might be a solution in chaining linearly but, especially for this setup, I think just a chunk of iron in like a "C" shape, oriented Up, around the track, would get you ~3x improved magnetic performance. You'd wrap the iron with your coils and trigger it the same way. Iron is good for these low frequencies but higher frequencies need different core materials. It also makes the steel the "force carrier", as in what actually gets pushed on. It can be a lot easier to hold onto steel than to coils. Notice the individual wire of the foreground coil moving at 10:01 in the video. Eventually that wire will fail as copper fatigues/work hardens quickly...
Allen Engasser
Allen Engasser Aylar önce
Greater acceleration per coil could be achieved by having steel "C" cores reduce the reluctance of each magnetic circuit. Using steel cores would increase the magnetic flux for a given current.
Jalesa Nina
Jalesa Nina Aylar önce
DATING-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------💜 NUDE.SNAPGIRLS.TODAY/SIESTA?DATE-SEX #ライブ配信の再編ありがとうです!#この日のライブ配信は、#かならりやばかったですね!1#万人を超える人が見ていたもんね(笑)#やっぱり人参最高!#まさかのカメラ切り忘れでやら1かしたのもドキドキでした!#今後は気を付けないとね5). . !💖🖤❤#今後は気をライブ配信の再編ありがとうです!#この日のライブ配信は、#1万人を超える人が見ていたも ん(#笑)#やっぱり人参最高!#まさかのカメラ切り忘れでやら1かしたのもドキドキでした #今後は気をライブ配信の再編ありがとうです!( #笑)#垃圾
Helge B
Helge B Aylar önce
but it would also drasticaly increase the inductance of the coils leading to slower current rise times, which have to be countered with higher voltage
حسنين ماهر ال نجار 21 Hassanein Al-Najjar
Contentment is an indispensable treasure 🌹🙂 .
Incroyables Expériences
A way to know which reason is the most limiting would have been to make a regression, it the curve is close to an exponential it's mostly a back EMF reason, if the curve is close to a square root, it's mostly due to kinetic energy (harder and harder to increase for a given power).
Incroyables Expériences
@muggzzzzz No, the back EMF (voltage) is in the other way but the current still flows is the same way. A diode would only prevent to use the linear motor as a generator if a magnet was sliding very fast (the back EMF would be higher than the power supply).
st1300 r
st1300 r Aylar önce
@muggzzzzz that won't work. A magnet moving past a coil will generate a voltage. Back emf is not a problem. It is just a fact and the reason a motor doesn't draw locked rotor current at idle under no load. If say you put a reverse diode across a relay coil you are shunting the collapsing magnetic field and preventing a high voltage spike but you're still dumping the energy. It doesn't prevent it.
muggzzzzz Aylar önce
You could just connect a powerful diode to prevent the back emf.
Ivory AS
Ivory AS Aylar önce
Incroyables Expériences Hey, a French TRvidr! Guess I'll head over to your channel to practice some.
st1300 r
st1300 r Aylar önce
@Troy Walker if you double the speed you have 4 times the energy. If you are moving the magnet fast enough its field (back electro motive "force") cancels the force from the energized coil so no power transfer to the magnet. Think of it as the motor (the power into the coils) equalling the generator (magnet moving past the coils) You'd call it the motors no load current and speed. A motor and generator are the same thing it's a matter of do you put electricity into it so it spins or you force it to spin and get electricity out of it.
Kriss Femmpaws
Kriss Femmpaws Aylar önce
Tom I find this very interesting, the thought that came to my mind is what happens if you increase the center to center distances of your coils say .125 mm with each coil. This would in effect change the winding timing, this is done on some EV motors to gain rpm for a given voltage.
Jalesa Nina
Jalesa Nina Aylar önce
DATING-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------💜 NUDE.SNAPGIRLS.TODAY/SIESTA?DATE-SEX #ライブ配信の再編ありがとうです!#この日のライブ配信は、#かならりやばかったですね!1#万人を超える人が見ていたもんね(笑)#やっぱり人参最高!#まさかのカメラ切り忘れでやら1かしたのもドキドキでした!#今後は気を付けないとね5). . !💖🖤❤#今後は気をライブ配信の再編ありがとうです!#この日のライブ配信は、#1万人を超える人が見ていたも ん(#笑)#やっぱり人参最高!#まさかのカメラ切り忘れでやら1かしたのもドキドキでした #今後は気をライブ配信の再編ありがとうです!( #笑)#垃圾
Julian HG
Julian HG Aylar önce
Awesome Tom, loved this one especially, as you dove in to the physics and equations. Can i suggest you add a little led to each coil circuit so in the slomo we can see them triggering? Awesome job!!!
dennis hill
dennis hill Aylar önce
Mad respect. Great stuff. Found it very interesting, especially your passion for knowledge and problem solving.
Julien Peyregne
Julien Peyregne Aylar önce
This project is amazing ! Thank you very much for sharing this. Good job for this design improvements. Love the way the plane get off the slide this is engineering !
mincrmatt12 Aylar önce
An intuitive way (without just plugging in kinematics) to think about why it _looks_ like each subsequent coil imparts less velocity is this: while they all accelerate by the same amount, the projectile is moving faster past later coils, and so accelerates for less time.
David Milner
David Milner Aylar önce
Love how much work you put into this experiments. Thank you
Ethan Hale
Ethan Hale Aylar önce
I love watching the progression by tweaking certain factors. I also learned a lot as you walked us through the process. Keep up the great work!
Michael Woodward
Michael Woodward Aylar önce
Great project and video. If you are still looking to optimise further, I would suggest freewheeling diodes on the transistors, putting a fat cap in parallel with the lithium batteries and increasing the distance between the sensor and the coil towards the end of the rail(so it has a bit more time to turn on). Keep up the great content!
laremere Aylar önce
2 thoughts: Instead of velocity vs distance graph, try using an energy/time graph. Kinetic energy is equal to velocity squared, so if energy increase is constant, then a velocity/time graph would look like sqrt(t). Using distance instead of time also skews things, and you switch to using time instead of distance for the battery graphs. My guess is that a good curve to have in energy/time graph is a straight line. I love your constant attempts to use super capacitors only to find out batteries work better. Definitely a consistent theme of the channel. I think we both just think super capacitors are so cool and want to find uses for them :) I wonder - capacitors definitely have faster response times than batteries when load changes, while batteries can sustain the load better. Their strengths and weaknesses compliment each other. Did you try connecting both the capacitors and the batteries in parallel?
Per Westermark
Per Westermark Aylar önce
@varun koganti I think you missunderstood the use of "loss" in the comment. He didn't mean power loss. The decoupling capacitors are there to reduce the *voltage* loss (obviously more often called voltage drop) in the wiring up to the current consumer. And his use of impedance was good because there is both inductance and resistance in the wires - a twice as high current spike will give a twice as large voltage drop from pure rwsistance in the wire, so the decoupling capacitors makes a big difference to keep the voltage up at a consumer with pulsed loads.
vince pap
vince pap Aylar önce
To be quite frank, it would probably best to have a position vs time graph instead since you cannot accurately measure the velocity as the projectile is constantly accelerating. What he measures is the average velocity over a fixed distance rather than the true instantaneous velocity. If you wanted a true energy vs time graph, you would need to find the line of best fit for the position vs time, and then take its first derivative which then could be used to find 1/2mv^2
Aaron Aylar önce
Super capacitors are great if used as a primary in explosive situations. No primary explosives needed.
varun koganti
varun koganti Aylar önce
@tboy32 decoupling capacitors are not used as a means to reduce power loss, they act as semi current source when the chip sinks more current(inductance of PCB trace resists this.). You are essentially inductors in this case no point using capacitors.
dylan valbuena
dylan valbuena Aylar önce
first thought went over my head, but I noticed the same thing for thought bubble two. the combination of both super cap and battery might provide a further stable voltage and current demand
Thomas Kay
Thomas Kay Aylar önce
Love the vid, would having both magnets be able to launch the glider faster? I think it would be less affect by the extra mass. I'm not certain it's just the first thought that came to my head.
Benjamin Morrish
Benjamin Morrish Aylar önce
Many, many years ago I made one of these with my physics teacher at school, I was happy when we exceeded 5m/s and that's where it ended (along with the school year!). This thing is awesome and all props but more to the point, I finally have a video to show people to explain the principle!
cowcar87 Aylar önce
Excellent video, Tom. Very interesting and clearly presented data that you've provided. Keep up the great work. Slow-mo was amazing.
無名賢者 Aylar önce
I wish I had the resources, mostly the space, to do projects like these. Glad to live vicariously through you, keep up the good work!
Coneshot Aylar önce
I built a mass driver as a science fair project back in the '80's, I got around the curve flattening by progressively spacing the driver coils further apart as they went down the track. My reasoning was like a transmission in a car the impulses then match the speed of the projectile as it accelerates.
jim skywaker
jim skywaker Aylar önce
i think i have seen this on some rollercoasters as well, the fins near the end seem to get further apart
Xmysef Aylar önce
Could be because it’s a ”stage” setup, it works by taking the speed/force from the stage before it and doubling it. The thing with ”parallell” setups is that it accelerates to a certain point until the speed and velocity is equal to the amount of time it takes to pass each coil. So yeah, what you said is quite accurate
Always Censored
Always Censored Aylar önce
@Anabolic Catalyst Gordon Dickson Dorsai series.
Mad Scientist
Mad Scientist Aylar önce
This was also my recommendation for his prior vid. Although I was more focused on the speed of his microcontrollers.
Robin L.
Robin L. Aylar önce
so rather like how a car's 5th gear doesnt have the same torque as first?
ZoonCrypticon Aylar önce
Excellent! Could you also apply a low stream of air flowing along the rail to decrease the friction and thus increase the velocity?
Pleyland Aylar önce
The spread sheet section was by far the most exhilarating part of the video. I imagine that the interference from all those magnets must create quite complex patterns. I saw someone mention an induced magnetic field in the sled. Interesting things to consider
Octavio Mariani
Octavio Mariani Aylar önce
That take off was amazing. Looked like a real hi tech launching system.
Victor's Lab
Victor's Lab 14 gün önce
You may be able to increase the final velocity, by spacing the coils farther apart, further down the rail. This will make the launcher longer, but should also make it faster.
Чё Бля
Чё Бля Aylar önce
I love how this channel started as modelling planes and various flying ... things (some of them is hard to describe) but then evolved into trebuchets and now its about building a coilgun.
Jalesa Nina
Jalesa Nina Aylar önce
DATING-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------💜 NUDE.SNAPGIRLS.TODAY/SIESTA?DATE-SEX #ライブ配信の再編ありがとうです!#この日のライブ配信は、#かならりやばかったですね!1#万人を超える人が見ていたもんね(笑)#やっぱり人参最高!#まさかのカメラ切り忘れでやら1かしたのもドキドキでした!#今後は気を付けないとね5). . !💖🖤❤#今後は気をライブ配信の再編ありがとうです!#この日のライブ配信は、#1万人を超える人が見ていたも ん(#笑)#やっぱり人参最高!#まさかのカメラ切り忘れでやら1かしたのもドキドキでした #今後は気をライブ配信の再編ありがとうです!( #笑)#垃圾
kindlin Aylar önce
I know sarcasm is hard on the internet, everyone, but we're just taking our lead from the video.
ULSS ' PLAY Aylar önce
@Чё Бля Ты типо шутки не понимаешь?
i eat nazis
i eat nazis Aylar önce
@kindlin haha i’m going to say something that’s wrong and say it’s a joke. very funny.
Treacherous Saint
Treacherous Saint Aylar önce
cough cough
cnmmd qiuoo
cnmmd qiuoo Aylar önce
This is a really fascinating project, thank you for doing it!
Paul Deck
Paul Deck Aylar önce
This is a really fascinating project, thank you for doing it!
Nick Garrett
Nick Garrett Aylar önce
Very interesting. you dramatically increased your velocity. I like to think of the coils as inductors instead of resistors. As the velocity increases, the squarewave pulse you apply gets shorter and shorter. in order to reach maximal current at the critical time, these inductors might benefit from being custom. You could kind of control the acceleration by picking specific inductances. Keep it up!
Graham D.
Graham D. Aylar önce
Hey Tom, this was really cool. Next time maybe you can invert the design and make a plane that's the rail/powersupply, and the a runway that's a stationary magnet. :D
wolvenar Aylar önce
Have you tried spacing the coils farther from each other to keep the timing more similar throughout the rail? This only helps with acceleration to a certain point though mainly where the influence of magnetic flux per time period becomes too long or to short. The optimum spacing may be different at different speeds.
Monster Pumpkin
Monster Pumpkin Aylar önce
I absolutelly love your optimization videos ! Not only are they very entertaining, they are also extremely informative, giving both information regarding the topic and insight into the mind of an engineer
GordieGii Aylar önce
Nice project Tom. Did you consider using one super-cap per coil (pair) so each one would fire at full voltage?
Chris Aylar önce
Awesome work. Your intuition that the distance between the permanent magnet and electromagnet is spot on. I used to work on the design team for a company designing motors for the robotics industry. The gap was one (if not the most) important aspect to control. You've got me wanting to make one of these now! I may have missed it but if you are not already using N52 magnets, see if you can get some of those. Don't worry about the characters following the number, such as N52H. The (H) is to do with the maximum operating temperature.
JC Aylar önce
I feel like randomly seeing someone using a trebuchet in England wouldn't look that out of place 🤣🙏👍
Jon [0ryn] Westgate
Hi Tom, Have you tried increasing the distance magnets towards the end of the array?
Andrew Howard
Andrew Howard Aylar önce
Excellent stuff. I'd love to see the effect of spacing the coils a little more.
LeInfidel Aylar önce
One question 🙋🏻 how far did the plane go ? Did faster speed = greater distance ? Or was the added weight of the new glider a factor ?
Chris Sloan
Chris Sloan Aylar önce
Seeing the sled drop away from the 3D printed plane is a pretty awesome slow-mo shot. In terms of optimization, I'm curious how much effort you spent optimizing the timing. My understanding is that it would be pretty critical in a system like this, but you don't talk about it, so maybe you've left some more performance on the table? (Or maybe you just felt it wasn't interesting to talk about?)
John Green
John Green Aylar önce
The air gap is still ~40mm long. The other side of the electromagnet is open, so the magnetic flux has to flow to the next electromagnet via air. The overall reluctance is still quite high and can be greatly reduced by tying backs of electromagnets with an iron bar and using a magnet that partially overlaps 2 electromagnets.
Mathew Cherrystone
Mathew Cherrystone Aylar önce
@John Green I'm not sure if that is what he meant. In an electrical motor the maximum speed is mostly determined by the induction happening between stator and rotor, because of the moving magnets. What I was talking about was the self inductance of any coil, that limits the current flow, when it is powered and extends the tme it takes to turn it off.
John Green
John Green Aylar önce
@Mathew Cherrystone yes, this is the maximum speed limit Tom was talking about in the video. It can always be raised by reducing the number of turns in windings, like in any motor. There would be other practical problems, for example the perpendicular pull on the magnets would be strongly increased (I mean ~2 orders of magnitude), so mechanical design and balancing electromagnets on both sides would be very important.
Mathew Cherrystone
Mathew Cherrystone Aylar önce
Introducing an iron flux guide would likely increase the inductance of the coil. Not sure, if it would still turn on fast enough.
Tyler Hargrove
Tyler Hargrove Aylar önce
or... a greater density of electromagnets
Dougal Tolan
Dougal Tolan Aylar önce
I would look at replacing each coil pair with a single coil and an iron yoke under / through the track. Probably use a sled with just 1 magnet instead of 2 side by side.
Gophergames Aylar önce
Very clever and well done. I especially like how you got the plane to stay attached till the end
Aidan Macnamara
Aidan Macnamara Aylar önce
Cool video! A friend and I were just discussing the issue of sag in regards to the difference between a Lipo and Li-ion for launch as he was not getting the expected launch thrust. Basically this was due to the volts dropping a lot on the Li-ion, resulting in less motor speed and less thrust even though the throttle setting was the same.
Lucas Henrique Carneiro
Amazing! Please continue to work in this Launcher.
Flat Line
Flat Line Aylar önce
Great video again Tom, must admit the maths side of it baffles me, but fascinated by the rules of physics. Just an uneducated thought looking at it, would it be possible to space the coils further apart the further along the track they are to aid in acceleration?
Amélie Lacroix
Amélie Lacroix Aylar önce
For those still confused about the difference between railguns and coilguns: Railguns use two rails and lots of electricity to launch a projectile with the Lorentz force. Coilguns have a projectile that goes through the center of a group of coils stacked like donuts, with the ones in front of the projectile attracting it and pulling it forward, and ideally, the ones behind it repelling it and pushing it forward. The magnetic launcher in the video uses the same principals as a coilgun, but with the way the coils are oriented, calling it a magnetic launcher would be more accurate since its primary purpose and design is for it to launch stuff from the sled rather than simply using the sled itself as a projectile like a standard coilgun would.
Sister Perish
Sister Perish Aylar önce
@Hindu Goat Plenty of people say gauss rifle/pistol for coilguns, especially because of Fallout.
Otzkar Aylar önce
@Hindu Goat ? A coilgun still isn't the same as a railgun tho.
Hindu Goat
Hindu Goat Aylar önce
yeah but no ones ever heard of coil gun, everyone says railgun regardless of the precise arrangement of the magnets. Its like everyone says 'literally' to mean actually... but it really means 'as per the literature'
Razia Sultana
Razia Sultana Aylar önce
Thank you for nicely explaining the concept
GUT BOI Aylar önce
I have an idea, you can add some lubrication on the sledge. It will work faster. I realize, the navy rail gun use a coil too for their rail gun, connect the sledge first then connect it to the coil in serial. In that serial combination all the current will be resisted by the coil (in serial way) therefore the sledge will not melt caused by the high amp. I would love to see you make it. ;)
Mackdaknife6669 Aylar önce
cool project! I've always been a fan of linear induction motors!
zuygj bnsv
zuygj bnsv Aylar önce
cool project! I've always been a fan of linear induction motors!
dcoog anml
dcoog anml Aylar önce
cool project! I've always been a fan of linear induction motors!
3D Printer Academy
3D Printer Academy Aylar önce
cool project! I've always been a fan of linear induction motors!
Voidsand Aylar önce
Its not a linear induction motor - only since the projectile is a magnet. If anything, the magnet is inducing a back current into the coils (hence the use of smaller coils) which only serves to slow down the acceleration, thats the only place that induction is happening, but its unintended
Mary Zmijski
Mary Zmijski Aylar önce
@3D Printer Academy more efficient
3D Printer Academy
3D Printer Academy Aylar önce
@Mary Zmijski what is the difference between LIM and LSM?
Tarehjerne Tarehjerne
This is not an induction motor.
Click It
Click It Aylar önce
@The Scubersteve Yes, Mary is right. This is more of a LSM.
qopoy dnon
qopoy dnon Aylar önce
cool project! I've always been a fan of linear induction motors!
Rock girl
Rock girl Aylar önce
cool project! I've always been a fan of linear induction motors!
Pierce Aylar önce
I really enjoyed watching this and it brought back some of my interest again in DIY electrical fun. Good Job! Thanks.
⤴️⤴️Congratulations you won hit me up for INTERACTION on claiming prize.
Oyez10 Aylar önce
The faster the projectile moves, the fields need to increase in amplitude and decrease in duration over previous stages. Progressively higher voltages with decreasing coil resistances accomplishes this. It gets hairy with the switching in later stages but can be done. Great project Tom!
runforitman Aylar önce
4:30 I did physics this year and used these a lot, but I've never heard them be called "SUVAT" I assume some call it that because those are the variables it takes? I think we just called them "equations for constant acceleration"
Dougal Tolan
Dougal Tolan Aylar önce
Just physics having a BODMAS style branding makeover. Pathetic.
Cameron136 Aylar önce
I’ve always seen them called the kinematic equations. And some of the variables had different letters. Maybe it’s an American thing? Or maybe it depends on what subject you’re studying
Duane Degn
Duane Degn Aylar önce
I used to teach high school physics and this is the first time I've seen the equations called SUVAT.
Permire Fabrica
Permire Fabrica Aylar önce
We just don't call them somehow special. We just calculate the integral of the acceleration to get the velocity. The benefit is, that the formula found like that is also true for not constant acceleration.
Nicholas N.
Nicholas N. Aylar önce
To me they’re called kinematics equations
Strvggle Aylar önce
Coolest video series i have watched in a while , Good work and was very relatable to my old physics classes
Alex M
Alex M Aylar önce
You should linearly increase the distance between the coils from the start to the end of the rail, otherwise your system will try to maintain a constant speed at some point in the middle of the rail.
Bruno Passarelli Gelli
the lower velocity increase in the end is due to the magnet spending less time over the influence of the electromagnets. Thus, the impulse (force x time) is smaller, and the impulse is all that matters in this case
Adam Landrum
Adam Landrum Aylar önce
Quality videos as always Tom. Way to go!!!
Twilley Aylar önce
Ok so im very interested in printing this glider! Amazing work man! Is there any way you can give me more info on knowing the weight using infill? I use cura. Also print in the orientation as shown in thangs? Thanks!!!
Bjorn de Jong
Bjorn de Jong Aylar önce
you make physics so much more interesting keep it up
the agile aardvark
the agile aardvark Aylar önce
I'm amazed by the perfect separation of sled and printed plane. Were there more iterations of it before it worked like this?
jebari jihed
jebari jihed Aylar önce
Hi ! nicly done! very good work ! I think using a ring register with a couple multiplexers and buffers will highly increase you control over the switching speed. Since the frequency will be the ring register clock.
Rat1sully Aylar önce
Can I recommend looking at supercapacitors that are power density optimised with a much lower ESR. Skeleton technologies are the way to go on that front then your onload voltage drop will be much lower
Trey Smith
Trey Smith Aylar önce
Wow, that's a fantastic project! Nice work sir!
may dog
may dog Aylar önce
Fun and interesting project. Have you considered making C shaped iron cores to connect the paired coils which should concentrate the magnetic flux to the gap in between?
Ross Wehner
Ross Wehner Aylar önce
I wish I could have liked this video more than one time. So glad that I am a patron - I get joy from supporting Tom, I learn something from each video, and hopefully help these videos reach more and more people to increase our collective knowledge.
Brandon Ward
Brandon Ward Aylar önce
You could also try launching steel, while it won’t have as much of a generated magnetic field, I feel as if it may give you a acceleration advantage because it’s not canceling itself out therefore allowing more coils(and unlimited amount of coils) throughout the launcher Also you can try dry graphite on your launcher which will make the friction very minimal on your sled(trick used from pinewood derby cars)
Hello Santa
Hello Santa Aylar önce
If you use steel, it doesn't generate its own magnetic field so the electromagnets would have to provide more power. Not only this, how would you detect and accurately time the coils as hall sensors are now worthless?
Crypt1cmyst1c Aylar önce
It'd be cool to see how much you could improve this with a linear rail instead of the aluminum extrusion and sliding sled. you'd need a longer rail than the magnet coil drive and a stopper so the bearing carriage didn't fly off the end
Fantabulous Snuffaluffagus
The final sequence of the glider launch, with the sled falling away, was gorgeous. Is there anything to be gained in using different coils at different locations along the rail? Or variable coil spacing along the rail?
Jim Huntley
Jim Huntley Aylar önce
Due to the inductance of the coils, I wonder if the ones towards the end of the rail ever build up full current.
Plush Terry
Plush Terry Aylar önce
great project, really interesting, thanks! I haven't done the maths to see if it's a problem yet, but could the arduino possibly be holding you back? iirc they are 8mhz, and with the arduino libraries running as well as your code, that's possibly not leaving many cycles to actually execute code in the time you have available. you could maybe use a teensy 4 instead of an arduino, they are a LOT faster. i've not seen the code, neither am I an expert, but if you can get someone with a decent bit of embedded knowledge i'm sure they could make your code run a lot faster. for example it looks like you might be logging to serial at each magnet, logging on the serial monitor is very slow. you could maybe save the all the data as variables then send them all to serial once the trolley has launched.
Máté Kovács
Máté Kovács Aylar önce
A few ideas: - You don't have to reverse polarity to also push the sled. You can just use a second Hall sensor located after the coil, and a second winding on the coil wired up in inverted polarity, so when the second Hall sensor turns on the second coil, it will push. With the position of the sensors, I think it can be timed perfectly. Yes it is 2X the components (and thus cost and power draw), but also roughly 2x the force at each magnet, resulting in a speed increase. - With a lubricated sled (and the plastic part of it shaped aerodynamically), most of the drag on the sled would be eliminated. - I've also noticed on the high-speed footage that the coils lean in a bit when active. This is expected as per Newton's third law, but the coild might need to be mounted more sturdily.
AJF Aylar önce
@Jack Martinelli Make a video and post it man!
Máté Kovács
Máté Kovács Aylar önce
@Robert M Kreegier That is only when they are connected to a capacitor, forming an LC oscillator. If you look at current vs time when you turn off the power source (and current is proportional to the magnetic field), a coil by itself would produce an exponentially declining curve, approaching zero as you go towards the end of time. Same goes for capacitors by themselves. But together, they form an oscillator. The resonant frequency is 1/ (2*Pi*sqrt(L*C) ) where L is the inductivity of the coil and C is the capacitance of the capacitor. That is when coils ‘ring’. Now most systems have parasitic capacitors in them even if you don’t connect a real capacitor. For instance, there is a small capacitance between the windings of the coil, and in the transistor used to drive the coil. But yeah, by adding real capacitors and tuning the resonant frequencies to match the speed of the sled at each coil, the polarity could be reverted at the right time. You would need to turn off the oscillator at the right time though, because you don’t want a second pulling half-period to slow down the sled. It would create a nice sine wave when it is on, which is not optimal (the magnetic force is nat always maximum when needed), but simpler in circuitry than reversing the polarity using a switch or more complicated solid-state circuitry.
Tedlasman Aylar önce
Ben Sinor
Ben Sinor Aylar önce
@You_just It would only induce a current if the coil was switched on. With no completed circuit in the other winding you will only induce a potential but almost no current flow. Therefore efficiency loss will be minimal. This is why transformers with multiple taps are fine because the other portion of the winding doesn't have the circuit completed.
Robert M Kreegier
Robert M Kreegier Aylar önce
I'm not an expert on the subject, but don't coils "ring"? Like, when you remove the power source from a coil, doesn't the magnetic field collapse and then reverse or something? Could he tune the coils so that their resonant frequencies match the speed of the sled entering and exiting their fields?
Damien O'Shea
Damien O'Shea Aylar önce
I can't see if it's been mentioned, but could you add a super capacitor to each coil circuit that would be recharged by the battery bank? This would mean each coil gets the full voltage of the capacitor.
Fredjikrang Aylar önce
With that much voltage sag it might help to put a large capacitor near each transistor. You could calculate the needed capacity relatively easily based on how much energy is used each time a coil turns on. You would also have to make sure you use a capacitor with an appropriately low ESR. One problem with super capacitors is their relatively high ESR.
L_Trapp Aylar önce
You could also try to use the batteries in parallel with the capacitors, that way you can keep the voltage drop a bit less.
Voltechs Aylar önce
I love this. Such a nerd for this stuff. Nice work. Let's get planes and spaceships using this! I've dreamed of this since I was a little kid.
plumberman19 Aylar önce
Tom, you're my hero! With strong affinity for the mechanical/physical realm, and unfortunately now quadriplegic, I live vicariously through your videos! So now I'm back in school for computer science/software engineering. You're a huge inspiration and I look forward to all your videos Please don't stop uploading.
Patryk Mazurkiewicz
You observe an inverted parabolic velocity increment, due to the square-relation between the total (which you provide in equal portions each stage) and the final Velocity (which increases "less-and-less" each stage): E=0.5*m*V^2
Divvy Aylar önce
That was actually understandable for me (not the equations, they went over my head higher than that plane at the end!!). Very nice video.
Joseph Summers
Joseph Summers Aylar önce
That was very interesting. I've often wondered what the curve of timed intervals for such an application would actually look like and am very impressed that you were so successfully able to calculate them. I was going to take a more analog approach in triggering by making use of a variable frequency driven flywheel featuring a counter-balanced magnet passing a radial array of magnetic reed or proximity switches and then experimeting with accel rates and threshold of RPM activation. I think it's fairly obvious to conclude that the timing for optimum launch velocity is going to change with the mass, inertia, or other factors associated with the projectile (such as the load upon the slide and friction). Considering the average CO2 pistol is around 480 ft/sec and your current rail max @ 54 ft/sec it's not a bad start. but perhaps a barrel of stacked torroids with a shaped neodymium projectile launched off a pin and fully suspended could be much faster. Of course a rail-gun isn't a rail-launcher though is it? LOL
Dan Yochelson
Dan Yochelson Aylar önce
Now you need to work on optimizing the wing shape and other aerodynamic features of the 3D glider so you can try for distance! You could also add a gas thruster and have it triggered by the last set of coils.
EinzigfreierName Aylar önce
What about the inductance of the coils? Current flowing through a coil can't ramp up infinitely fast. The more windings, the higher the inductance and the slower is the ramp up. This may be an additional or even the main reason why less turns give you a higher end velocity. At the end of the track the sled may be already too fast to allow the current through the coils to ramp up to maximum before the sled has passed the coil. So I'd suggest to measure the inductance and tune it by adjusting the number of windings in order to better match the current ramp up to the position and velocity of the sled.
Bily 99
Bily 99 Aylar önce
The number of windings of the coil don't only affects to the ramp up inductance; Also to the Magnet Resilience, or demagnetized of the coil, what afects to the atraction / repulsion of permanent magnets of the proyectile. This takes a time; The more windings, higher the time what the coil remains magnetized (slower magnetizacion due to highter inductance, and greater resilience), and contrariwise.
Bily 99
Bily 99 Aylar önce
​@Robert M Kreegier Arduino not be a bit slow for the requirements of the end of the coil-gauss accelerator?
Logan O'Callahan
Logan O'Callahan Aylar önce
In an electronically commuted washing machine they advance and extend the commutation as the speed increases in the spin cycle. This allows for the slow current build due to the inductance, and the inductance then helps keep the current flowing as the peak back EMF can exceed the commutation voltage.
Robert M Kreegier
Robert M Kreegier Aylar önce
@Robert Backhaus He could have an Arduino electronically switch the magnets on/off based on the sled's last three known positions. That way you could have the magnets on before the sled was anywhere near the magnet. For that matter, he could have all the magnets on and switch them off mechanically as the sled passes. Also, isn't there a more novel way of measuring the position of the sled? I mean, the magnets on the sled must change the voltage or current through the coils as it passes, right? Electromagnets aren't my wheelhouse, so I don't know what I'm talking about.
Robert Backhaus
Robert Backhaus Aylar önce
Or, adjusting the distance between the hall sensor and the coil. That would give the later coils enough time for he current to ramp up. That said, if it was taking a long time for the current in the coils to ramp up, we wouldn't be seeing those sharp voltage drops.
racvets1 Aylar önce
Since you have sensors to detect where the sled is, could you use them to predict where the sled is and go faster than the initial timing? (The gap between the coil and the sensor) Also, then could you create more field by turning on the next one earlier, or hold the current one a little longer/shorter to match the center point of the magnet before shutoff?
Elliot Mapp-Best
Elliot Mapp-Best Aylar önce
Always useful, Always inspiring...!!! Good work Sir.
Lyndon Than
Lyndon Than Aylar önce
Awesome video, and I love that you are using your platform to encourage things like Wren. Lots of great thoughts on how to increase performance and optimize this are popping into my head, and then I also think further and debunk them.
EctoMorpheus Aylar önce
@Lyndon Than it does, I use it and I'm Dutch.
Lyndon Than
Lyndon Than Aylar önce
PS Wren would not accept someone outside the US it seems
Matthew Cruikshank
Matthew Cruikshank Aylar önce
I'd recommend lightly oiling the rails as the friction between the sled and the rails would have a significant effect I think.
ernie5229 Aylar önce
I used to wind and assemble r/c brushless motors. As far as I can tell, they are pretty much identical to your linear motor. The fewer the winds (w/heavier wire) the faster the motor, but the lower the torque. What would happen if you had progressively fewer winds as the carrier went down the track? It would start off at low speed w/high torque, then go progressively to high speed with low torque. Much like gears in a car. The last few coils could be only a few winds (with heavy wire OR multiple strands in parallel) and this would really kick up the speed. Also, work to get the air gap between the coils and the magnet as small as possible. The magnetic attraction (reluctance) drops off as a square of the distance. In motor construction, this is the easiest way to increase efficiency. This is hard to do in mass production, but with a DIY project the effort really pays off. Reduce the gap by a power of two and get four times the output power!
Mike Smith SylaR
Mike Smith SylaR Aylar önce
@Jebimasta He did design a new sled to reduce this gap. To further reduce it he could reduce the thickness of the plastic between the coil and magnet
Jebimasta Aylar önce
I'm a bit confused, is this not what he did? apart from increasing the wire size. He reduced the gap and the number of windings.
John Bäckstrand
John Bäckstrand Aylar önce
I actually was sure the video was going this route, was surprised to learn it didn't.
Ethan Intrepidi
Ethan Intrepidi Aylar önce
For the launcher I would use something similar to drawer slides with ball bearings to keep the sled in place.
Bram Grim
Bram Grim Aylar önce
love your new sled design especially the plane hook
Jen Harder
Jen Harder Aylar önce
I started watching your videos and the pneumatic plane really interested me and i was wondering if you could put the files online to print
Sumedh Dhale
Sumedh Dhale Aylar önce
Such an awesome project! you are right, the speed of the projectile induces large voltage in the coils and hence reduces the input current (and it goes in only one direction). The force from the projectile is proportional to the magnitude of current through the coil. A quick fix is to use a DC-DC converters. They are cheap circuits you can buy online. These converters will make sure that the current (hence the force) is constant through each coil.
Extra stuff
Extra stuff Aylar önce
Not sure if I'd call that a "quick fix" in this context, you'd need a pretty beefy one that can handle the high spike currents involved of a coil being active briefly. For a more traditional less high peak spike load it would be a good choice, like on the ebike for example to get the remaining useful energy out of the capacitors.
Alessandro Giovanardi
use a prediction time for actuating a coil: use a estimated time of actuation of the coil instead of the sensor, use every sensor reading to adjust the prediction for the next coil, like an advance for a piston engine, if you tweak the activation time maybe you can squeeze a little more performace.
TissuePaper Aylar önce
IMO this is something that should be added once more lucrative optimizations are made. Optimizations to the hardware design should come before spending a lot of time optimizing software, to avoid wasting time on hardware that doesn't ultimately match your performance expectations.
Matt Hunter
Matt Hunter Aylar önce
A faster moving projectile has less time to receive a push from the coils, reducing their effect the faster it goes.
Bubblezov Love
Bubblezov Love Aylar önce
Tom this project is looking really interesting! I'd like to suggest some simple alterations in the only place I can! lol Aim the plane up at 45degrees and also set the planes control surfaces for a left turn. Then when launching, face the launcher thusly, (this is based on my boomerang throwing and making hobby) face the wind, now turn right until your launcher faces crosswind. Now turn into the wind by just a few degrees. Now, after some fiddling maybe, the plane should launch nice and high while turning into wind. This will give you a longer flight by quite a bit...... 😎
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