How The Most Useless Branch of Math Could Save Your Life 

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There is an entire branch of math simply devoted to knots - and it has changed the world. We’ll rope you in. Head to brilliant.org/veritasium to start your free 30-day trial, and the first 200 people get 20% off an annual premium subscription.
Huge thanks to Prof. Colin Adams for his excellent help guiding us through the world of knots.
Many thanks to Prof. Doug Smith, Dorian Raymer, Prof. David Leigh, and Prof. Dorothy Buck for helping us understand applications of knot theory.
Many thanks to Prof. Dan Silver & Prof. Jim Hoste for speaking with us about the history and tabulation of knots.
If you want to learn more about knots and play with them yourself, check out:
The amazing KnotPlot tool - knotplot.com/. Thanks to Rob Scharein for providing technical help as well!
A table of knots and all their invariants - knotinfo.math.indiana.edu/
The Knot Atlas for general info on knots - katlas.org/wiki/Main_Page
Knot Theory Video References - ve42.co/KnotTheoryRefs
Images & Video:
Alexander Cutting the Gordian Knot by Donato Creti via Fine Art America - ve42.co/GordianCut
Indus Valley tablet via Quora - ve42.co/IndusValley
Pages from the Book of Kells via National Trust of Scotland - ve42.co/BookOfKells
Medieval Celtic designs from @thebookofkellsofficial via Instagram - ve42.co/KellsInsta
Chinese knotwork by YWang9174 via Wikimedia Commons - ve42.co/Panchang
Quipu cords by Pi3.124 via Wikimedia Commons - ve42.co/Quipu
Borromeo heraldry via Terre Borromeo - ve42.co/Borromeo
Birman/Jones letter via Celebratio Mathematica - ve42.co/JonesBirman
Molecular trefoil knot by M stone via Wikimedia Commons - ve42.co/TrefoilMolecule
X-ray structure of trefoil knot by Ll0103 via Wikimedia Commons - ve42.co/XrayTrefoil
Bacteria animation from Your Body's Molecular Machines by Drew Berry via the Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research - wehi.tv
Topoisomerase and knots from Orlandini et al. Synergy of topoisomerase. PNAS, vol. 116, no. 17, 2019, pp. 8149-8154. - ve42.co/Orlandini2019
KnotProt 2.0: A database of proteins with knots and slipknots - ve42.co/Knotprot
Special thanks to our Patreon supporters:
Anton Ragin, Balkrishna Heroor, Bernard McGee, Bill Linder, Burt Humburg, Dave Kircher, Diffbot, Evgeny Skvortsov, Gnare, Jesse Brandsoy, John H. Austin, Jr., john kiehl, Josh Hibschman, Juan Benet, KeyWestr, Lee Redden, Marinus Kuivenhoven, Mario Bottion, MaxPal, Meekay, meg noah, Michael Krugman, Orlando Bassotto, Paul Peijzel, Richard Sundvall, Sam Lutfi, Stephen Wilcox, Tj Steyn, TTST, Ubiquity Ventures
Directed by Emily Zhang
Written by Emily Zhang and Derek Muller
Edited by Trenton Oliver
Animated by Fabio Albertelli, Ivy Tello, Jakub Misiek, and Mike Radjabov
Filmed by Derek Muller, Raquel Nuno, and Emily Zhang
Produced by Emily Zhang, Han Evans, and Derek Muller
Thumbnail by Ignat Berbeci and Mike Radjabov
Additional video/photos supplied by Getty Images and Pond5
Music from Epidemic Sound



23 Şub 2024




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@veritasium 5 aylar önce
Have any lingering questions about knots? Want to hear more knot stories that didn’t make the cut? Derek and Emily (the writer/director of this video) will be hosting a livestream for our Patreons next week! Join our Patreon for more info and a link to the stream - ve42.co/VePatreon
@lightflix 5 aylar önce
@crypto_surrealism 5 aylar önce
@L17_8 5 aylar önce
Jesus loves you ❤️ please turn to him and repent before it's too late. The end times described in the Bible are already happening in the world.
@namantherockstar 5 aylar önce
Veritasium inspires me.. My parents said if i get 50K followers They'd buy me a professional camera for recording..begging u guys , literally Begging...
@alexjohansson9508 5 aylar önce
Why is it called a unknot instead of a notknot?
@zebatov 4 aylar önce
My earphones discover all 352,152,252 knots half a second after entering my pocket.
@robotcodm7668 8 gün önce
@supertubemind Gün önce
Yes, but if you dig deeper, you'll find its just a simple unknot which is proving to be elusive to untangle.
@HeavenlyDevilGaming 11 saatler önce
@@supertubemindway to ruin the joke
@chriscrossx 5 aylar önce
I'm in awe at someone having the patience and skill to visually tie thousands of knots and distinguish duplicates. Thanks for another great story wonderfully told.
@bernardfinucane2061 5 aylar önce
It is truly mind numbing stuff. Source: I tried to figure it all out a few decades ago.
My headphone wires form the most complicated knot in the world
@albertosalazar7968 5 aylar önce
I did not expect a video about Knots to be that interesting.
@LRYMUSIC 4 aylar önce
@@cartoonsinkannada1186 especially if you put them in your pocket/on your table un-knotted
@wZem 4 aylar önce
And all that work without having an aim or purpose in mind at first. Just to broaden humanity's knowledge.
@sake60000 5 aylar önce
Math is so incredible. People just study a phenomenon and it reveals a language that describes the world in ways we didn't know of before. Wonder what fields of maths exist that we have yet to study
@sledgehammered1765 4 aylar önce
I wonder if there is any phenomenon which just gives random meaningless solutions the closer you study it
@HEN_X 4 aylar önce
Every natural phenomenon can be reduced to mathematical precision. Plato and his world of Ideas are the true foundation of the world. 💯
​@@HEN_Xy el caos es un cuento chino?
@irokosalei5133 4 aylar önce
Maths is all definitions so fields are potentially infinite. Knots being an actually studied one is especially tied to its relevance in physics.
@prasunbagdi6112 4 aylar önce
@@sledgehammered1765 chaos theory
@Haeze 5 aylar önce
When it comes to avoiding knots in headphones, my easy way that I have used for years is to simply not allow the endpoints into the storage case. If it is a zippered pouch, just leave the earbuds and the plug hanging outside the zipper. You can just grab the entire length of cable and shove it in the zipper pouch as a massive wad if you want, just leave the ends outside the zipper, and you will have no knots. Same story if you put them in your pocket. Just leave the ends sticking out of the pocket and you get no knots.
You sir are legendary. I read ur comment when this video reach exactly 3:46 minutes. I tried this today when you post this, an entire day I follow ur instructions (I have a retro tape walkman) trying to have a walk the entire day in my town, visiting a caffe, meeting friends, work outside, bringing 4 cassette album from 2 legendary musician Daft Punk and Santana. And not a single accident of tangled knots occurred. Bless you for ur wisdom. Now I can resuming to watch this video to completion. Much love from Indonesia. 🎉🎉
@Skobeloff_Phoenix 4 aylar önce
I was going to comment something like "imagine not using wireless" But although I myself use wireless, even as the annoying internet troll that I often am, I just simply cannot deny the absolute genius of this.
@entropymaster2012 4 aylar önce
Proof: As was explained, if the knot does not involve the ends it is an unknot!!
@kephalopod3054 4 aylar önce
Or maybe you find not.
@Skobeloff_Phoenix 4 aylar önce
@@kephalopod3054 I think what you meant to say was: "Or maybe you find KNOT" I'll show myself out now....
@mriswith88 5 aylar önce
20:50 In grad school I took a class with Jozef Przytycki on Graph Theory and Knots, and he was also on my oral exam committee. It's so cool to see him pop up in a Veritasium video! This has to be one of the best, if not THE best, video on knot theory on TRvid. Amazing job as always, Veritasium!
@brokenjet6134 4 aylar önce
That's awesome
@persona2grata 3 aylar önce
Although I wouldn't in a hundred years choose to study knots, it never fails to inspire me how people take up these causes, pushing esoteric fields forward for nothing more than a pure love of the game until eventually their discoveries can be tied to other fields to make important scientific advances. Science really is humanities most collaborative sport.
@anthonymartial2832 2 aylar önce
The wonders of a deterministic universe People think its intelligent design, but it actually is thermodynamics, entropy, and life trying a better hand at making more "complex life" for energy dissipation
@persona2grata 2 aylar önce
@@anthonymartial2832 I've heard that theory before, that life is an outcome that naturally extends from energy dissipation/entropy maximization, although for me it's still mostly theory. I don't think we've gathered enough information to know yet whether life is as prevalent in the universe as that theory would suggest. But it is a fascinating idea though.
@siddharthshekher1101 5 aylar önce
Veritasium's graphic designer would have become a physicist by now. It must take a lot of understanding on their part to learn the concept first and then visualize how to demonstrate it. It is just mind-blowing.
@seeqret 5 aylar önce
And the animator too
@r.daneel738 5 aylar önce
@dburitto 5 aylar önce
They might even be the same person
@Buttersaemmel 5 aylar önce
@@dburitto the face you see is Derek Muller. the animator is Fabio Albertelli, he also does graphical design (so probably also doing the graphical design for the videos). don't think they are the same person. Fabio Albertelli is well educated in science so he can work with the knowledge he already posseses.
@user-ov2fc5sd1e 5 aylar önce
It's not _that_ complicated though...
@commenter8640 4 aylar önce
As a budding molecular biologist, I know think that it is essential and indeed impossible to venture into the field without having a thorough grasp of knot theory first. Thanks Veritasium, truly eye-opening.
@Rowan-zi8ek 5 aylar önce
Genuinely fascinating and I love learning from this channel, the combination of clear explanations and wonderful graphics. As a visual learner I can't overstate how much I appreciate the work put into these. I also love the videos about "useless" math, whether it ends up useful or not, because it's always so intellectually engaging. It reminds me that I like math, and these videos manage to break down topics and fields that would be otherwise unapproachably esoteric Thank you for all that you do!
@petros8478 4 aylar önce
If your a christian you need to repent of your sins PLZ
@ChanIzKineske 4 aylar önce
@@petros8478 PLZ reconsider ideas you was feeded with wuthout much thinking, accept others as they are, we are all equal whatever our religion is. Harassing people online is not what the Lord was dieing for, but we forgive you. So you must forgive yourself. Peace
@Luluskuy 3 aylar önce
Veritasium in one of his thumbnail : "You are not visual learner"
@galoisdeer2660 4 aylar önce
A buddy of mine is studying knots in projective spaces, called like “knots in the shadow world”; he explained that you can’t necessarily get a well defined projection onto the plane for them (over/under crossings could be the same so you don’t really get a “drawing” of the knot in way that works well).
@lemurpotatoes7988 26 gün önce
Is the idea to see how much additional information you need to specify to recover the original knot from its projection?
@hcfornwalt 5 aylar önce
This is such an inspiring example of the value of pure science and long-term benefits of pure intellectual curiosity. I wish this kind of story could land in the hearts of more people. The survival of our great grandchildren's civilization may depend on supporting today what seems to be pointless navel gazing.
@TheMarkEH Aylar önce
I don't fully understand many of the concepts here, yet I was enthralled by this presentation. I think it demonstrated the beauty of mathematics, as I was captivated even though my intellectual limitations prevented me having deep insights into the topic. Put another way, the ideas here were aesthetically wonderful.
@duck8735 Aylar önce
Bro, don't try to make yourself look smart and "humbling" yourself.
@willboswell_ 5 aylar önce
Thanks so much for all you do. Producing content like this opens up so many opportunities to people who may not have good teachers, aren't inspired, and also people who just want to keep learning after school. Always look forward to your content; the longer video length helps me take it more seriously.
@pfarnsworth84 5 aylar önce
Good video. As a former rescue squad member, I think a video explaining the mechanical differences and advantages/disadvantages of each knot would be rather interesting. Also: if you have p coloration, you might want to see your doctor.
@aparnaga6730 4 aylar önce
I've always found untying knots of my ear phones fun and relaxing, I honestly miss doing it since we have bluetooth earphones now. This is just soooo facinating! I never thought I'd actually love something about Mathematics! Absolutely loved this!
@BillWrightabc 5 aylar önce
This is a big THANK YOU for both the entire video...and for the intro. I am...how shall I put this...of a certain age...and working hard, every day, to challenge myself mentally. Neuroplasticity, etc. As you mention, I've tied my shoes "the wrong way" for the better part of two centuries. Since watching this video, I've mindfully been tying my shoelaces the "right way." So, again, thank you for the incredible video....and the challenge.
@lilelly16 Aylar önce
Ending the video with this quote was immensely satisfying and tied (!) everything together so elegantly.
@smoov22_sonic 5 aylar önce
There is a certain demographic that I hope never finds this extended tribute to knots
@JesseJames-jq4jo 5 aylar önce
It's me. I'm the demographic. 😡
@multicoloredwiz 5 aylar önce
I don't like this cuz u have a tails avatar and know exactly what u mean
@hmm_okok 5 aylar önce
hah, tough job you'll have trying to stop boat owners from learning this one, your hopes are for naught they have known this for decades
@koifish528 5 aylar önce
The boy scouts 😱
@Barnil_JN 5 aylar önce
@vicsummers9431 5 aylar önce
I was so hoping you’d mention Khovanov Homology. I did my PhD research on it :) Also the P in HOMFLY-PT was my adviser’s adviser so now I feel famous
@cheofdoom2627 5 aylar önce
Awesome! I just was in the swedish wilderness a month ago and i faced my achilles heel and learned to knot, which led me to philosophize with my friends about the science behind knots, what physical factors might be responsible for the formation of spontaneous knots, like loop count per length, thickness, stiffness, friction ... and what kind of wacky chaotic natural process automatically leads to some kind of pseudo-order here that form these structures, because we all know boxes of cables and their strange dynamics. I would never have thought there at the campfire that already people pack cords into a box and spin it to get to the bottom of it. I'm laughing my head off right now and am amazed at the same time. Thanks for this brilliant and interesting video.
@kmpostulio 4 aylar önce
A few days ago, I saw other video, about Chinese game "go". That video mentioned John Conway, who studied the game. He passed away in 2020, and I just write this to remember his contribution.
@firstcolton 5 aylar önce
Love this content and I never even play with knots much. Your videos are so educational I was getting confused with the trefoil backwards for Alexander’s polynomial but your visuals helped me to figure it out.
@pomegranate3601 25 gün önce
i love that I never know in which rabbit hole I am going to fall into when I watch your videos but it`s always incredibly fascinating! Thank you for your valuable content!
@logankennedy7082 5 aylar önce
As a Ph.D. student in algebraic topology, I am glad to see that different areas of topology are finally getting the attention they deserve.
@daniel11shauri 5 aylar önce
So you deal with stuff like mobious strips, klein bottles and 4-D toruses
@CharlesPanigeo 5 aylar önce
Very cool! I'm a graduate student in math learning algebraic topology. I'm working through Hatcher's right now. Its interesting enough right now, so we'll see if I end up focusing on algebraic topology.
@watcherofwatchers 5 aylar önce
As a non-Ph. D student in anything, topology and knot theory is, and has been, a very popular subject on science and mathematics themed channels for a very long time. It isn't "finally" getting the attention the subject deserves - you have only just now discovered it, apparently. Those are two very different situations.
@logankennedy7082 5 aylar önce
@@watcherofwatchers I have not "just now discovered knot theory", however, I was merely trying to say that I am happy people are presenting it to the general public so more people can learn about these fields of mathematics.
@vwlz8637 5 aylar önce
​@@watcherofwatchersAs a non-phd student in anything, you should let them talk
@kell_1111 5 aylar önce
I did not expect i would be entertained by a video about knots but I truly am! quality content and a well made video, thank you!
@RK68978 5 aylar önce
My masters dissertation was on the 8-19 knot! Really interesting a little known branch of science - nice to see it on such a large platform!
This is the most complicated video I've ever watched in this channel. I didn't Understand much but after seeing that our everyday knot can be so interesting to great scientific minds I get excited. 😯
@matthieuaubert9447 3 aylar önce
I've started to lace my shoes like this ~2 years ago when I realized its symetry and aesthetism, but never paid attention to its tightness. Thank you for this great video, as always !
@Miolnir3 3 aylar önce
17:34 I lost track on the 5-colorable with this image showing only 4 colors
@rozygcf6611 5 aylar önce
Fun fact: making sure you're doing a square knot instead of a granny knot is also very important in surgery. They are taught to alternate the way they secure off the suture.
I wonder if surgeons are better at tying their shoes.
@tumekeehoa3121 5 aylar önce
My understanding is the suture knot is similar to a square knot but with an additional 'under' at the first step so right over left and under and under, left over right and under. I read it was supposed to reduce scaring but looking how it performs it appears to lift the added knot mass off the surface perhaps making for easier removal. I suspect surgeons use a granny suture knot based on biological sex and age under... just for giggles.
@jeffthomson4223 5 aylar önce
@@tumekeehoa3121 The start of the 'surgeon's knot' is three twists so that it holds tension better while we get the next layer in place- or at least that was the explanation given to me. There's a lot of different types and thickness of suture material, but it's common for it to be smooth and springy, and you need to make sure it knots tightly around the blood vessel and not as a pointless loop with no tension.
@KharmaDoctor 5 aylar önce
Thank you for the perspicuous presentation (Derek) of this perspicaciously crafted material (Emily). This is pretty awesome work.
@mattbettilyon4672 4 aylar önce
Was a great video. On square knots and shoes - you can still tie the top knot as a clockwise if you simply reverse the bottom layer of the knot. Best of both worlds.
@Qwitsoender 4 aylar önce
Am I correct in thinking that the shoelace knot is not best explained by saying you have to wrap clockwise, since this would depend on the direction you made the first trefoil? In the video he starts by going left under, right over (his left and right), if he had started the opposite way, then the top trefoil would need to be made counterclockwise? Is this correct, or am I misunderstanding something?
@19LG99 5 aylar önce
25:47 "once the chloride ion is removed..." how do you remove chloride from the strongest chloride binder?
@CryptoIncursion 6 gün önce
Working with paracord while i watch this. Ive been so obsessed with learning new knots lately so this vid hits the spot, and may explain why people like me find them so fascinating.
@espygaming5101 5 aylar önce
Just to avoid potential confusion for those folks moving to a squar knot for tying their shoes, its actually isnt just clockwise or counter clock wise, it depends on how the first overhand knot you make is tied, whether its the left side going over then under or vice versa. It also depends on if you make the loop on the left or right side. So check to look if it actually appears like a squar knot to confirm.
@kevinj9059 5 aylar önce
Bingo! It was so frustrating the Derick didn't say this. Now people that were tying their shoes correctly may end up listening to his advice and getting granny's.
@anders.hovmoller 5 aylar önce
I cringed every time :(
@Fredman2410 5 aylar önce
I'm left-handed, and was congratulating myself because my second knot was correct, then realized that my first wasn't. I have a reverse granny!
@wmlindley 5 aylar önce
I find the simplest way to remember is to the first half "forwards" and the second half "backwards." a/k/a right-over-left, then left-over-right.
@kostnis 5 aylar önce
@williamk9299 4 aylar önce
10:27 what’s the relationship to these kinds of movements and behaviors compared to linear algebra and matrix manipulation?
@amananand2874 4 aylar önce
You missed an important point where it pops up in theoretical physics. In Wittens famous work on Topological Quantum Field theory. It was shown that all observables of a SU(2) Cherns-Simons theory are Jones polynomials of the Wilson loops.
@prototropo 8 gün önce
At 31:44, is there not a knot induced toward the left (viewer's) end of the cord?
@johnsmithy3147 5 aylar önce
Almost right about the square knot; all that matters is that each loop goes in different directions. Usually taught as over-under, over-under (or vice versa) with the same end regarding the crossings
@Bob94390 4 aylar önce
Thank you for a great video! What I have heard about knot theory earlier was always about knot polynomials. That didn't sound right to me, so I have avoided the subject of knot theory. What you talked about, sounded mostly much more intuitive. Is the theory of knot polynomials worth studying? If so, would it be worth it making a video about it? Would you want to do that?
@williamarcor251 5 aylar önce
Derek has been killing it with the math videos lately
@Leonardo-Lenguaje 5 aylar önce
@newolde1 5 aylar önce
​@@repentandbelieveinJesusChrist2repent for your illogical blasphemy and math will save your soul! Abacus 2:77,232,917-1
@johndrakeethenred728 5 aylar önce
@@repentandbelieveinJesusChrist2 AMEN!
@robinsonmitchell9995 5 aylar önce
Okay, your video was a much more wide-ranging overview of knot theory. I'm glad to see that protein folding was mentioned, but not the word prion. Enjoyable video. And I think I stumbled on part of your method of videos here. I'm inclined toward being ADD, though never formally diagnosed, but I end up going down rabbit trails of topics to see where they lead, and end up geeking out on some of the strangest things. I think I see you doing the same, a mind driven by passionate curiosity about everything and delighting in the process of discovery, which is my thumbnail analysis of how your video process might work. I salute you, sir, for figuring out a way to make a living from following rabbit trails to see where they go!
@vaticinus Aylar önce
What software used used to create the animation in this video?
@kimbonguno4741 10 gün önce
The Tricolouribility move to solve some part of the knot problem was just genuinely genius
@rambocreativity5436 5 aylar önce
This extreme dedication and passion to just... knot theory is astounding. 130 pages is insane.
@michaeljohn8905 Aylar önce
This is amazing Im so glad I watched this till the end to see what it could be used for. It’s a lot to digest and I have a certain problem concentrating but I made it. Thank you for posting.
@cdenn016 5 aylar önce
My great aunt (Mary Gertrude haseman) was one of the founders of knot theory (after tait) (incidently her brother got his ph.d under Hilbert). She worked out a subset of 12 crossings in the early 1900w. After ph.d she became a housewife and knots were ignored until around the 80s mostly
@wyvern4597 5 aylar önce
broooo thats so crazyyy
@314calls 5 aylar önce
Wow I've heard about her , so cool man😁
@NoNameUswr 5 aylar önce
hey I have a question is someone willing to answer it?
@ivantube3129 5 aylar önce
​@@NoNameUswrdont ask to ask
@VivekYadav-ds8oz 5 aylar önce
Do you ever have Impostor Syndrome or feel pressure to do better or on par with your ancestors? Very cool family tree you've got there but I know I would've felt depressed trying to live up to it.
@MrDarchangelomni 4 aylar önce
@31:36 I stiffened knowing the mistake you were about to broadcast as good practice... never do this with any type of cable, but especially cable that contains un-braided stranded wire Ie. Earbuds 3 destructive actions take place when you twist stranded wire onto itself, or even wrapped around a center bobbin. Ie. An extension cord spooled around your hand and elbow. 1. The individual wires that make up stranded wire are equal in length (for many reasons) but as you twist the cable, each individual wire inside the protective insulator is rotating longitudinally, and when you un-twist your cable the inner wires do not completely return to their factory position, so over time they begin to bunch around each other tighter and tighter. since the wires closest to the outside are effectively getting shorter faster, having a farther distance to move with each rotation, they will begin to knot inside the cable first, snapping away from the ends while the inner wire continue to become stiffer, and exerting force on the cable ends in the opposite direction as the outer wires. After a while you will notice that even when you spool out the cable it begins to look wavy as if it had been curled. Since there is less wire making contact with each snapped strand, the resistance slow rises at each end of the cable dropping the voltage... In the case of extension cords you will notice that this makes the plug act like a heating element. With earbuds you will notice that over time the volume decreases, until shortly before one side stops working they only operate at 25%-50% of original volume. You can actually measure it, check output when new, then twist and untwist them 180 times @6 months worth of simulated use, and measure the difference. 2. Friction, you ever had to cut a wire or piece of metal in half, and had only your hands, you folded it several times at a certain point... well a twist is essentially a rotational fold and each crossing point is a fold location since copper is a soft metal, each time you force one side of wire to cover a longer distance than the other side what happens is the two opposing forces pinch the atoms together at that spot forcing them to rub against each other with much more force than they would see during normal use. To figure out how much farther a side has to pinch and stretch to accomplish a twist, take the diameter of the wire then find the circumference for 180 degrees, now using that distance as your radius, double it to find the diameter of the twisted wire, now find the circumference using that diameter for 180 degrees and that is the distance of travel between the shortest side, and longest side. 3. With stranded wires, the insulation is usually not as tough as cable with less strands of thicker gauge, simply for the same reason we use stranded wire in applications where we want the cable to remain easily pliable. So the insulation is easier to damage inside the cable after repeated use, and the insulation be it enamel for earbuds or pliable vinyl in romex, with enough twist, you can find yourself with a cable that is in a permanent state of "dead short" and the big danger being it quickly melts the conductor ending the short, so it gets set aside, and you forget or a coworker uses the cord, plug it in making it live, the rolls the cord out loop by loop and when they get to the place where the damage is, the movement causes their hand to complete the circuit at the damaged location. I tell people all the time the two best ways two best ways to store any cable is do not twist or loop decide on a convenient length and fold the cord back and forth like an accordion then pinch the centers together and tie with a piece of scrap wire or bread tie depending on size of cable. The second way is essentially the same as the first, but instead of a back and forth stacking of the cable, start a spiral on a flat surface with then roll it around itself so that it has no rotation perpendicular to the length like it does when looping, now continue that rolling, until you have four to five passes on the flat spiral. Now start your next roll on top of the first roll at the same size make the same number of passes you did on the first spiral layer, repeat until you have a roll of cord 4-5 passes wide and about the same number of layers high. you will almost certainly be left with a cable end on each side or both ends meeting at same place. You can now place a tie around the finished coil. I almost always use two so that it retains its shape for storage... It I am unclear you can visualize it as being rolled the same way windings on a transformer are.
@marswalkerr3549 4 aylar önce
From now on whenever I will tie my shoelaces, I would remember that Derek made the whole 35 min video on just knots and those are not JUST knots but some random chaotic patterns that tie the universe. Thanks Derek, the best on EduTube!! ❤
@jamesholio 4 aylar önce
I will remember that when I tie my shoes I'm making an unknot.
@nuwayser 5 aylar önce
Wow. Fascinating stuff. I have never heard of a square knot or granny/thieves knot being described as using clockwise or counter-clockwise motion. I have also never heard of anyone using two half-hitches to tie their shoes. I was taught one half-hitch plus one bow knot, and my muscle memory is so ingrained that I cannot describe how I do it without doing it. This goes all the way back to kindergarten. Lately on my hiking boots I've been tying the bow loops into their own half-hitch, but that's only needed because of the lack of friction on the lace material. When the author demonstrated how best to wrap earbuds, I did breathe a sigh of relief because that has been my Kryptonite. This also reminded me of how I was taught to wrap XLR microphone cables. First, find the two ends of the cable and hold them together in one hand. Then, grab below your one hand with your other hand and pull the two cables until you find the natural halfway point. Bring the halfway point to your first hand and repeat the process until you have a small bundle. Bind the midway point of the bundle with velcro, etc. Then, when you need to use the cable, the entire cable should naturally unravel without any tangles. It's also much faster to wrap and unwrap.
@janimiettinen74 4 aylar önce
If you find it hard to tie the shoelaces the better way, you can just tie the first one, the underlying knot the other way. The net effect is the same (both change the result knot into the same one that holds better). Doing the first one (laces go under each other the other way) differently is so much easier to learn than then second one (clockwise counterclockwise). You don't always even need to untie it completely, so it gets even easier.
@seanpatrick78 Aylar önce
Dang, you beat me to it by three months. Years ago, I re-taught myself to tie my shoes with a square not by reversing the way I did the first overhand knot. I also use a "shoemaker's knot, as mentioned by @brockobama257 ... who also beat me by three months.
@NickCombs 4 aylar önce
"Not Theory" 32:00 has the tricks to preventing knots in cords, in case you're looking for it. Basically, fold the cord in half and twist it around itself to stiffen. Then constrain its motion with something like a twist tie or dime bag.
@ralphxu2422 5 aylar önce
I’m so glad that veritasium is making more and more math videos.
@TotalDrganMania 5 aylar önce
Repent to these nuts in your mouth@@repentandbelieveinJesusChrist2
@LetMeSoloYKS 5 aylar önce
​@@repentandbelieveinJesusChrist2Jesus is a femboy and screams uwu all over the place
@derpyslurp8779 5 aylar önce
​@@repentandbelieveinJesusChrist2this literally has nothing to do with religion nor does it deny it. In fact, it's kind of like admiring the beautiful universe God created and its intricacies.
@esomos_org 5 aylar önce
​@@repentandbelieveinJesusChrist2you managed to comment the least interesting topic for this comment section.
@rraaiin 5 aylar önce
@@repentandbelieveinJesusChrist2 i want to enter jesus' gates 🥵😫😩😳
@daevski 2 aylar önce
You have a great level of discipline for the number of puns you avoided during this video. I do knot.
@hendrikmuus7767 4 aylar önce
The knot in our shoelaces are two wrap-arounds stacked on each other. So going clockwise or counter clockwise around the loop is just half the story. Whether you end up with a more lasting knot depends on both wrap-arounds, not just on the second one. For me it was much easier to alter the procedure on the first wrap-around to get the better result. One simple rule makes the difference: the lower end of the first wrap-around shall be the lower end of the second wrap-around. This creates a sqaure knot. The knot after disregarding the rule is inconsiderable, sailors not even have a name for it.
@jjanvimehta365 4 aylar önce
Genius is he! to give relevant example of knot from everyday life of possibly all the viewers. I can say that I persisted through the video because that first example got me curious!
@tomfeng5645 5 aylar önce
There's another interesting, simple way to reduce tangles in loose wire/string compared to a simple loop: figure-8 loops Part of the reason why earbuds tangle so much in a simple loop is that once the end feeds through the loop, the loop can rotate and continue to tangle, giving many-crossing messes. Looping in a figure-8 instead "locks" loops together, and also creates less area for the end to loop into, when the string is sufficiently confined (say, in a pocket). The experiment demonstrating this ended up becoming part of a module in one of my undergrad courses (I didn't do the module, but looked it over when considering which ones I wanted to do). Of course, things like stiffness, length, agitation, etc were also considered, but this one stood out to me as something that required no change to the string, container, or motion. I've been using this for loose earbuds since I learned this, and I haven't needed to undo more than just very simple knots. It's funny cause it *looks* extremely tangled coming out, but just grabbing any one strand and shaking it out almost always does the trick since all the overlaps are mostly un-knots.
@runninggag Aylar önce
The square knot you showed towards the end is (at least in Germany) used in Firefighting. Its main Use is to connect two ropes together because it pulls itself tighter when pressure is applied
@priyamohan 5 aylar önce
In southern India, everyday women create knot diagrams called 'Kolam' in their front porches . The more complicated the knotting the more skilled the person drawing it. This video is when I realized that many such Kolams are actually super complicated, challenging to create, un-knots! So cool to know there is a whole sub branch of math around this! Unknowingly it sounds like these women have been practicing Reidemeister moves on a daily basis in attempts to create ever more complicated knot diagrams! And instead of the p-colourability, these Kolams care more about the areas between the loops which are denoted by simple points. The points are actually laid out first and the knot emerges as a line diagram around them .
@PMA_ReginaldBoscoG 5 aylar önce
Are you a math professor?
@nichiyes26 5 aylar önce
That's super interesting. Now I have to go read more about what those women are doing and what they know. But also, the description in your last paragraph sounds just like how my knot theory research represents the knots with graphs (graph theory kind), nodes representing the loops and the lines represent crossings. I wouldn't be surprised if someone in math academia lifted the ideas from the Kolams.
@PMA_ReginaldBoscoG 5 aylar önce
@@nichiyes26 exactly what I thought
@saurav406 5 aylar önce
Thanks for sharing... 🇮🇳❤
@akarshitdhiman7618 5 aylar önce
bro whattt......!
@batorvator2336 5 aylar önce
Is it possible to find a written description of spoken details? I have to translate into my own language and enlighten the people around me with knowledge.
@Bosstastical 5 aylar önce
The woodgrain knot in the table that looks like an eye looking through the unknot.. that's art 33:06
@gordonrobbins5559 Aylar önce
I really enjoyed this video. Knots have fascinated me from childhood. I figured out on my own how to tie certain knots that amazed and frustrated others. I especially liked making varieties of slip knots because people would be trying to figure it out, and I would pull and the complex knot would vanish like a magic trick. And I would laugh and evil laugh. I was a weird kid.
@ShaunBrown8378 5 aylar önce
I can't believe I just watched a 35 minute video about math and knots and was kept entertained AND learned something.
@connor6595 5 aylar önce
So awesome to cite in your supramolecular chemistry project Veritasium's video. Hope a good mark
@Icecicle83 5 aylar önce
This video changed my life. I don’t have to double knot my shoes now. I tied them the other way and they didn’t come undone all 12 hours running around at work. Amazing.
@RichardG.S. 5 aylar önce
Bro same. Now i dont have to tie my shoe every 100m 😂
@misterz7951 5 aylar önce
Same here 😂
@RandomUser2401 5 aylar önce
both methods are just double-knots, and nobody here knots their shoes this way at all
@mam0lechinookclan607 5 aylar önce
My knots wont open since 2021, i just slip in and out of the shoes. I have won in life.
@dfmayes 5 aylar önce
I have demonstrated to a friend that his shoes are tied wrong and how to correct it, but he refuses to tie them correctly. 😫
@user-tn8yy5lg6r 2 aylar önce
Thanks for what you do. This is insanely informative and well presented.. Very informative and entertaining!!.
@espinaca27 5 aylar önce
This is mind blowing. I thought the Game if Life video was the best I had seen on this channel, but I’m not so sure now…
@SmallMouseBigField 11 gün önce
I will save this to watch later. It is late, and I am knot following along very well.
@pmthekillerr 5 aylar önce
The explanation had so immersed in itself that i lost the track of time and my mind was blown
@jordannash1998 5 gün önce
Garden Hoses = aggravation. How to solve. Don't coil, but lay it down into a many layered figure eight which then feed back out much more easily. The figure eight provides an extra advantage: you put a twist into a hose by coiling, but when you use the figure eight, you put in a half twist one way, followed by a half twist the OTHER way, ending up by cancelling out all twists. Good for the hose, good for you. You'll LOVE it.
@integercyclolcyc 5 aylar önce
Veritasium somehow finds a way to constantly make videos like this. It is really complicated but he still finds these facts out.
@jbellfield 5 aylar önce
You might like Polymatter, did a video on the economy of Delaware and gift cards the other day.
@savagepro9060 5 aylar önce
He has a research team, come on!
@rasmusturkka480 5 aylar önce
@@savagepro9060 I really love how he finds out these facts all by himself while his research teams claims all the credit
@Roid33 5 aylar önce
I don't know how someone can make a half hour long video about knots and still make it entertaining but he does it anyway, also toilet gang
@diegomondaca7321 5 aylar önce
Essential craftsman has a good video o knots and string for construction use but this is far more detailed
@stevendyer6868 4 aylar önce
@10:34 Talks about the crossing number being difficult to calculate when there are twists in a knot. First if you recognize that the two have distinct names (cross & twist) it becomes evident they must have distinguishable differences, which they do. A twist overlaps itself creating a loop and a cross overlaps itself creating a loop but also has a section of itself directed through the loop. Or described differently, a twist forms a loop and a cross forms a loop with a line through the loop.
@marcbeek1619 26 gün önce
Excellent video as always. I'm pretty much always learning something new in every video you make, thank you for that. Now about the tying you shoelaces bit......The clock-wise or counter-clock-wise way isn't really the point. Let me explain. When tying your shoelaces what you essentially are doing is tying a two knots. But by not pulling any further at the point where the loops are about as long as the remainder of the shoelaces you end up with the laces in a nice looking bow. Continue to pull the loops all the way until the end of the laces are through and you'll have made either a granny knot or a square knot, and are left with long shoe laces again. Whether you'l have to go clock-wise or not when tying the bow-bit actually depends on the first knot you've tied. Like you explain in the video around 29:15, in essence you wanna ty a square knot because that doesn't loosen up as easy. When tying a normal square knot you go Left over Right and then Right over Left, or vice versa. As long as you counter the first knot when making the second knot you'll end up with a square knot. So depending on how you tie the first knot, let's say the base for the bow-part, you need to go clock-wise or counter-clock-wise with the bit that forms the bow-part in order to get a square knot at the end. If during your day you have to tie your she's again you'll will have made a granny knot the first time which loosens up while you are walking. Once again thanks for the all you have taught me in all of your videos.
@joseville 5 aylar önce
26:20 how some antibiotics (quinolones) and some forms of chemo work by inhibiting type ii topoisomerase (bacterial and human, respectively) fascinating!!!
@firstlast9384 4 aylar önce
have you tried splicing, there was a test done on to find weak knots and it was found breaks always happen at the knot end. Twisting wire to untangle but it damages the cable inside
@Acein2055 4 aylar önce
I tied one shoe CCW around the loop, my usual way, then tied the other shoe CW around the loop and made both knots tight then felt the tightness of the two knots and pulled on them to simulate partial loosening and there seemed to be no difference in tightness/loosening. I will continue my usual easier way of tying my shoes. The shoe tying video starts at 28:33.
@TimeBucks 5 aylar önce
Very informative and entertaining!!
@islahehukumat-gz8rg 5 aylar önce
@FahadMalik-rm7ik 5 aylar önce
@jiteshkhyani4371 5 aylar önce
@fredrickkipyegon6322 5 aylar önce
@robinsononate87 5 aylar önce
@BrownMInc 5 aylar önce
It's videos like this that make me truly appreciate pure math and wanna excel in it but then reality hits. Intrinsic motivation can only carry us so far. Applied it is for now
@arfazero1 5 aylar önce
Question. Has the existence of eather been systematicly ruled out as a possibility. With definitive proof as I'm not so sure we should have dismissed it. I realize it's really difficult to disprove things with science but I'd like to know as I have a hypothesis for it's existence being needed
@dybnik 4 aylar önce
I have watched many videos teaching me new ways to wrap my headphones, but this was by far the longest.
@MiniHaff 4 aylar önce
8:11 Bro this is one of the coldest bars ive ever heard
@joschi4148 4 aylar önce
this is a totally awesome video! Thank you so much! And I would totally buy this "knot-collector-card-game" you showed😊 Is it available somewhere?
@franciscovarela7127 5 aylar önce
My initial reaction was "So what? I wear slip-on shoes.". I then became slightly interested by the mathematics underlying knot theory and ended up floored by the practical applications of this area of study. An excellent video as always.
@mrmicro22 5 aylar önce
I recommend spray on shoes.
@rationalactor 5 aylar önce
@mikebbb23 5 aylar önce
Is there a difference between or connection of knot theory and string theory ? or the same thing ?
@shazmosushi 4 aylar önce
I wasn't able to catch every single part of the math, at least of the first watch, but this still is one of the best episodes of Veratasium ever made. Great job
@mwilli6 4 aylar önce
The best way to wrap a cable like an instrument cable is the over under method. It limits stress, keeps it from knotting and unwraps super quick and easy. Maybe not exactly related to the video, but its very handy.
@a2rhombus2 5 aylar önce
You know a concept is fresh and exciting when he talks about someone involved and their picture is in full HD color
@Mrbeahz1 4 aylar önce
Thanks for mentioning Jean-Pierre Sauvage who shared a Nobel prize with Stoddard and Feringa. Sauvage and his mentor J-M Lehn did work on polycyclic ligands that got me through my qualifying exams in grad school.
@_dread 5 aylar önce
0:00 Intro 0:24 Knot Theory 1:17 What is a knot? 3:40 Knot equivalence problem 4:32 Other famous knots in history 5:20 Vortex theory of the atom 8:25 On Knots paper (the first seven order of knottiness) 9:52 Reidemeister Moves 10:51 Haken’s Unknot Theorem (and upper bound and crossing number) 13:01 Knot invariant 14:13 Tricolorability 16:37 p-colorability (and polynomials) 21:34 Perko pair 22:32 n-crossings knots 24:21 Molecular knots 28:31 How You Should Knot Your Shoes :) 29:40 Doug Smith & Dorian Raymer experiments 32:00 Knot Theory's Potential 33:15 Outro (and video sponsor Brilliant)
@himx_3 5 aylar önce
Bro please tell me how to knot my shoe clockwise or anti clockwise
@_dread 5 aylar önce
28:31 ^_^@@himx_3
@esiarpze7908 5 aylar önce
@marupinto9390 5 aylar önce
@bonnzy1 5 aylar önce
You forgot @ 6:37 the bong on the windowsill
@Gryphonisle 5 aylar önce
I knew somebody out there somewhere had done academic work on knots. I still don’t know why my shoe laces knot, but it’s good to know someone else does.
@davilated 4 aylar önce
I’ve always struggled to know which witch is which, now I don’t know which knot is witch, or not. A+ video.
@tombannerman9293 4 aylar önce
Absolutely loved this video! I think one of the best! Keep making great stuff 😁🤓
@berserkerviking1 4 aylar önce
Very interesting! As a casual student of physics in by browsing I often encounter connections between knots and Quantum Field Theory (QFT), which I have previous had a hard time understanding. This video has helped me understand them better. Thanks a lot!
@endersteveee 4 aylar önce
having same interest, i get intuition this might be helpful in string theory too, what ya think
@berserkerviking1 4 aylar önce
@@endersteveee What areas of physics are you interested in?
@endersteveee 4 aylar önce
@@berserkerviking1atm am just a highschooler with extreme passion and curiosity for physics whose completing year 12, i havent narrowed my intrest as of now as i would wanna explore from the surface of each part
@miriammcfarlane6972 4 aylar önce
OK, I tried the twisted earbuds. A couple of hurdles: 1. my earbuds are set at different lengths from the point at which they diverge from the main line. 2. the earbud line is not slippery, so it can grip and tangle to some extent. Without thinking about it much I just automatically did the 'restricted space' thing by utilising a round, smiley-face bag with a zip that fits easily in a bag or can be squashed in a pocket (it's 11 cm or nearly 4.5" across). That works for me because I'm gentle with them, but I'd have to be gentle with the twist method, too, mainly because of the grip-strength of the material they are made with! 🙂
@lasagnahog7695 5 aylar önce
Oh man, I got excited when Conway showed up. It's fascinating every where and every time he shows up. In this one he just pops in, does something in an afternoon that no one had done before and then we don't hear from him anymore. I'm very grateful for all the footage we have of him.
@soyokou.2810 5 aylar önce
He was a true polymath albeit mainly in math
@endruv_2287 5 aylar önce
I said out loud "Yeah! Conway! Let's go!"
@ericaeli3807 5 aylar önce
He died of Covid :(
@TheQuicksilver115 5 aylar önce
Conway is one of the most brilliant minds to ever walk the earth 🙌
@ericaeli3807 5 aylar önce
@@TheQuicksilver115 his game of life, for me, put the lid on the coffin of Creationism
@lyrimetacurl0 5 aylar önce
I just tried the clockwise way of doing laces for the first time and thought that's probably the looser one. I have had my counter clockwise way come loose in shoes but when I do it on my tracksuits sometimes pulling the laces to undo it or pulling on it in any way transforms it into the dreaded "evil knot" which takes ages to undo and I hope I never have to encounter when I need the toilet, so I now tug on the loops rather than the ends.
@kiutsushou 5 aylar önce
The amount of work put into this video by Derek over the percent of it I understood tends to infinity.
@luminomaximus8583 4 aylar önce
I was expecting mention of knotphysics. Knots are used to explain space time physics in manifolds. Fundamental particles (u,d,e,...) could still be considered as knots. Great video as always. Thanks.