Getting to the Good Stuff (Uranium Enrichment) 

Illinois EnergyProf
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Enrichment of uranium to extract the U-235. How enrichment is done by gaseous diffusion and by centrifuges in detail after being turned into UF6 gas. The enrichment levels needed for reactors and for nuclear weapons. Why enrichment facilities in Iran was and is often in the news.



13 May 2019




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Echo Romeo
Echo Romeo 2 yıl önce
The best channel on youtube. I wish I had the money and availability to study under the scholarship of this amazing professor. Amazing channel sir, thank you.
Billy Bradshaw
Billy Bradshaw 3 yıl önce
This is my new favorite TRvid channel. This stuff is fascinating.
Schrödingers Dad
Schrödingers Dad 2 yıl önce
Same, accidentally stumbled upon this gold mine of a channel
Axeman3D 2 yıl önce
Yeah, I've been binging since I discovered it. Beautifully presented interesting content.
quoit99 training
quoit99 training 10 gün önce
The way this prof explains is awesome. Love your videos on Nuclear Technology. I learned about CANDU reactors much better from your videos compared to Canadian schools 😊
Ehren Loudermilk
Ehren Loudermilk 2 aylar önce
The decades of study really show. Dude knows his stuff
Daníel Sigurður Eðvaldsson
Learned so much about nuclear and related issues. Always afraid of this after learning about chernobyl but found I had really no idea what happened or how this works. Thanks 👍
smokingweedcures 2 yıl önce
Moreover than his impressive knowledge of uranium enrichment, I am in all of his ability to write backwards flawlessly.
Maurice Asm
Maurice Asm 2 yıl önce
Or maybe the video is mirrored
Ulfric Stormcloak
Ulfric Stormcloak 3 aylar önce
I’m rewatching this video after I visited a uranium enrichment plant for work. I love this stuff and I’m glad to work with it
Dahbz1434 2 yıl önce
I have no use for knowing half the info I have absorbed from this channel, but I want more.
Danyyil Bun
Danyyil Bun 2 yıl önce
Dude, now you know, and fear less. Nuclear is probably future as it gives way more energy than any other for relatively low environmental impact.
Jack Gamboa
Jack Gamboa 3 yıl önce
Thanks for posting this! Very clear and understandable and stuff.
123abc 3 yıl önce
Hope everybody knows that we are on a watch list now. Watching videos on Uranium Enrichment 😂
Bretton Ferguson
Bretton Ferguson 3 yıl önce
I've been on several lists for decades. This is one of the milder videos I have watched.
BasedGod Strugglin'
BasedGod Strugglin' 2 yıl önce
Turns out I’m Mason and I know what the numbers mean
Joe Cambodia 🇰🇭
Yeah right, 80 year old tech.
Daniel G
Daniel G Yıl önce
I mean, not really. It is physically impossible for someone to carry out this process alone. You'd need an enormous, sophisticated team-plus more money than God. If you somehow got that together, you'd definitely attract the attention to end up on that watchlist.
Mississippi Chris Sharp
Well, I would say this video is dynamite, but that seems a bit underpowered given the subject. Kudos, Professor. This is excellent content.
Ram Kulkarni
Ram Kulkarni Yıl önce
Sir I love your videos. They are really awesome!!
Space Llama
Space Llama 3 yıl önce
Thank you, Teacher! I was studying these for my exam and was lost because nobody explains the process right! I appreciate it very much!
🧐 Or, if you want to do it the dirty way, then you can use a graphite air cooled reactor (like in Sellafield / Windscale UK). Take your U238 and grind it into a fine powder, pack it into aluminium cartridges with fins for cooling, then slide hundreds of these cartridges into a graphite core (think of an RBMK but on its side). The neutron bombardment will slowly "breed" (see what I did there) U235 along with other fissile materials, short lived horrors like Cesium 137 and Iodine 131 etc. The reactor and the cartridges are constantly cooled by means of pumping huge volumes of air through the core. Once a certain amount of time passes and the fuel has become slightly enriched, you push new cartridges through the reactors face, pushing the enriched ones out the back and into a water tank. Here they can be collected and moved to external water tanks for roughly 90 days, to allow the short lived fissile materials to decay away. The fuel is then taken out of the cartridges and separated out into U238 & U235. Then you start the process again until you reach your desired quantity of fuel. This is an exceptionally dirty and potentially explosive way to enrich your fuel however. As the graphite will over time collect radiation and begin to heat up more and more, requiring additional cooling, or, you can allow the reactor to overheat and release the radiation in the form of a sudden burst of heat (known as a vigner release). But every time you do this, the next time the reactor will have to be taken to a higher temperature in order to burn off the radiation, eventually you will end up with a disaster. 🔥
Maggie Jetson
Maggie Jetson 2 yıl önce
You cannot breed U235, you can breed Pu239 from U238 and then separate them. It would not be easy or safe to do it but it can be done. China uses diffusion instead of centrifuge to enrich enough U235 for their first atomic bomb, so yeah it can be done.
@Maggie Jetson @Maggie Jetson I mean, you're half right.. 🤔 Okay, no you're not, but let me explain. What was separated out back then was the tiny, miniscule amounts of U235 that existed in the U238 to begin with. The method I described is an exceptionally primitive and dirty way to produce U239. If you want to breed U235, you can get started with Thorium 232, which can be placed into a breeder reactor along with U235 or U239, and will absorb neutrons over time becoming Uranium 233, 234 and eventually U235. Thorium 232 to U233 has been done many times, and I believe that an atom bomb was tested that used U233 as the fission material. To convert 232 to U235 using the breeding method would take perhaps millions of years 😂 - so, not exactly viable. But not impossible either! 👻 I'm a mechanic, with zero interest in this stuff. 🤔 But I suppose engineering is engineering no matter if it's a car engine or a nuclear plant. 🤷🏻‍♂️
Krzosu 3 yıl önce
Quite cool and informative - now it makes more sense. Thank you.
Ronald Garrison
Ronald Garrison 3 yıl önce
Enrichment by 1.5X is SCARY. I didn't know centrifuges were that high.
Wompa Stompa
Wompa Stompa 2 yıl önce
What I find scarier is one of the US government agencies made malware that was designed to get to Iran's enrichment facilities and then spin up the centrifuges until they broke.
Ronald Garrison
Ronald Garrison 2 yıl önce
@Wompa Stompa Of course, the truth is murky on that, and always will be. Yes, it is scary that they could do that. I had to go think about what I meant by 1.5X, a year ago when I wrote that. It must have been about enrichment by 1.5 at EACH STEP. If that's true, you might only need about a dozen steps to get to weapons grade.
Михайло Сєльський
If I've calculated right, one needs mere 4-stage centrifuge to get to reactor-grade concentration and only 11-12 stage - to weapon-grade. Still on the photo we see hundreds of them. Perhaps they work in parallel because of low productivity. But if something works in parallel, it's easy to reconnect that in series.
Roman Chomenko
Roman Chomenko 3 yıl önce
Misha the Urenco TC21 centrifuge you need 240 of the machines in series one after the other the feed of 210Kg of UF6 to get 1kg of bomb grade materials so Iran could achieve this in 1 year but only 4 to 6 nuclear warheads a year. Donald Trump wants Iraq part 3 war this time with Iran and at the same time Israel will be wiped of the map by knocking Israel's nuclear power plants.
Evan Bell
Evan Bell 3 yıl önce
That'd mean a separation factor of 1.624. Far higher than any real centrifuge.
Evan Bell
Evan Bell 3 yıl önce
And with that separation factor, you'd only need 9 for weapons grade.
Evan Bell
Evan Bell 3 yıl önce
@Roman Chomenko source for the TC21 having a separation factor of 1.0206?
Roman Chomenko
Roman Chomenko 3 yıl önce
@Evan Bell You've got the separation factor wrong with TC21 centrifuge has a 5m rotor length and diameter of 0.2m it is rated as 100SWU/year meaning if initial UF6 feed into a 9100SWU/year, the feed will be 29.148Kg and the enriched product of only 3Kg at 5 percent now using the same TC21 centrifuge you need 210Kg of UF6 and 240 centrifuges one after the other to get 1Kg enriched to 90 percent.
Taylor 2 yıl önce
I’ve heard people pronounce Iran as “eye-ran” and “ear-ahn” but I think this is the first time I’ve heard “eye-ron”. Great video still!
michael schwartz
michael schwartz 3 aylar önce
"Er ran"
José DeSouza
José DeSouza Yıl önce
Btw, Brazil's clearly demonstrated its technological prowess by building working ultra centrifuges domestically. But US-sponsored lawfare stopped it in its tracks using the lame excuse it was to fight internal corruption.
Tdubya 3 yıl önce
informative and to the point. subscribed.
Rigalai the Seer
Rigalai the Seer 3 yıl önce
This is better explanation than my lectures
Byron Sonne
Byron Sonne 5 saatler önce
Is this guy writing backwards on a glass screen, or am I imagining things? Respect to the skill that takes
ISLAM FOR YOU 6 aylar önce
Great professor
Saw Goodmen
Saw Goodmen 3 yıl önce
Can you enrich other metals other than uranium, I'm not really interested in making enriched uranium but I am interested in finding out if the same kinds of Concepts will work to concentrate other metals like maybe gold
Spacek531 3 yıl önce
Gold panning follows a similar principle: the heavier stuff stays in the bottom.
Maggie Jetson
Maggie Jetson 2 yıl önce
Thorium can be breed into something fissile. In theory you can breed gold from mercury but then most of the isotope you end up with will be radioactive.
Brother Grimaldus
Brother Grimaldus 3 yıl önce
So that's why we use plutonium in most of our nuclear devices! It's easier to enrich it at 3%, put into a seed reactor, and make plutonium-239! Because now you have something that can be chemically separated and more easily enriched! Thank you!
Ozymandias 3 yıl önce
Hi Mr. NSA operative watching this dude’s IP and tracking all of his data. *waves in American*
Brother Grimaldus
@Ozymandias what?
Joe Cambodia 🇰🇭
It also has a much better power yield/density for bomb grade. 14 lbs of plutonium in fat man, 140 lbs in little boy. Makes a huge diff if delivery method is by missile. Doc neglected to say it’s unlikely that anyone has a uranium weapon on the planet today. All ours have been dismantled; Russia: megatons to megawatts.
me me
me me 6 aylar önce
@Brother Grimaldus it’s just a meme lol
Alex Gomez
Alex Gomez 2 yıl önce
You can actually get out this debt by providing other countries with better clean energy and to those worrying about what if it blows up while you try to extract it well there must be a chain reaction that's needs to start so without that reaction it's a deadline
Blayne Mahoney
Blayne Mahoney 2 yıl önce
Hey I've been watching all of your videos. If I'm ever in Illinois, I'll be sure to give you a bit of tuition for your lectures ;)
Drake Dorosh
Drake Dorosh Aylar önce
I saw stainless steel tanks on a flatbed trailer that were labeled fissile material uranium hexafloride. I was surprised but I guess it is allowed.
Alex Gomez
Alex Gomez 2 yıl önce
What he is going to say is basically these huge plants were trying to extract 238 (10% non useful stuff) and make it into 235 (90% good enrichment fuel uranium)
Maggie Jetson
Maggie Jetson 2 yıl önce
Not exactly, you cannot change 238 into 235, what is going on here is like desalination by removing the things we don't need and increase the concentration of things we do.
Christopher Bullock
Christopher Bullock 2 yıl önce
The 12 thumbs down came from Iranian students taking this course on-line.
rawslice 3 yıl önce
The worry isn't about Iran getting the bomb. It's Iran getting the bomb and Israel immediately launching a nuclear first-strike against Iran that triggers Iran's proxies to attack Israel in response, throwing the entire region into a war that would cause an enormous spike in oil prices.
Nunya Bidniz
Nunya Bidniz 3 yıl önce
While that may be part of the political science equation, Iran's history of state-sponsored terrorism and generally bad-neighbor policies to the rest of middle-east make their achieving nuclear capability a scary idea. However, there's no real way to stop them w/o violating their sovereignty. I blame the commander of station during the original attack on the U.S. Embassy in Tehran during the fall of the Shah; his orders not to fire on the attackers violating U.S. soil led to this; a whiff o' the grape at that early stage would have sent a clear message to religious maniacs everywhere they still have to behave like civilized individuals or suffer the consequences...
Marvin Kitfox
Marvin Kitfox 3 yıl önce
Oh dear. Running the calc back to when the Earth formed, gives me a figure of U-235 abundance of 24% This means that, way back when the Earth was new.... You could make a nuclear bomb using just blacksmith's tools! (supply your own blacksmith of course, not my fault life too so long to get going!) A simple barrel full of about 300-400kg of pure Pitchblende would not only approach criticality, but drop a second barrel on top of it and it should go supercritical!!! Kaboom. (or at least one monstrously nasty Fizzle)
Nunya Bidniz
Nunya Bidniz 3 yıl önce
How do you get 24% We're only 1 half-life in, so U235 was only 1.4% concentration [remember, U235 half-life is 4.5 billion years, which coincides nicely with the formation of the Earth ~ 4.5 billion years ago, so 2x as much then as now.] Even the most optimistic estimates of the universe's age are ~ 20By, so 2^^5 = 32, 32x .7 = 22.4% U235. But that's only the amount of uranium formed during the big bang; since most of the uranium in the universe originated in later stellar cores & redistributed via supernovae, that calculation is essentially meaningless, esp. when given *most* estimates of the universe's age are
Nunya Bidniz
Nunya Bidniz 3 yıl önce
Ken Shackleton Oops! Too right; had the # for 238 stuck in the register. Where's the embarrassed emoji on this keyboard?..
Marvin Kitfox
Marvin Kitfox 3 yıl önce
@Nunya Bidniz Sigh. The info is in the video. u238 halflife is 4.5billion years, yes. u235 halflife is 700 million years. a.k.a. 0.7 billion years. With earth age as roughtly 4.5 billion, it means we are one halflife in for u238 (doubles total) but we are also 6.4 halflifes in for the u235 (86 times total) so if we have 100 units of mixed U now (99.3% u238 and 0.7% u235), then at 4.5 billion years ago we had 198.6 of U238 and 60.2 of U235. 60.2/(198.6+60.2) = 60.2/258.8 = 0.2326 fraction, or 23.26%
Jayyy Zeee
Jayyy Zeee 3 yıl önce
If you over-enrich the U235 with a few too many refinement steps, couldn't the material undergo spontaneous fission and explode? How is the concentration measured?
Sol Stice
Sol Stice 3 yıl önce
Critical mass is the answer
Evan Bell
Evan Bell 3 yıl önce
No. U-235 does not undergo spontaneous fission.
zapfanzapfan 3 yıl önce
There have been criticality incidents were too much U235 has been put in too close proximity. Not during enrichment though, I think it was during reprocessing where it is in solution and too much of the solution was stored too closely.
zapfanzapfan 3 yıl önce
Yes, just some poor worker that got irradiated.
zapfanzapfan 3 yıl önce
world-nuclear.org/information-library/safety-and-security/safety-of-plants/tokaimura-criticality-accident.aspx 2 workers died in the accident I was referring to.
Laurence Bernhardt
Laurence Bernhardt 9 aylar önce
Thorium molten salt reactor avoids all this with far less waste.
Joe Cambodia 🇰🇭
Iran has a nuclear reactor Doc, called the Bushehr plant. 1k megawatts soon to be 2k and eventually 3. They are a nuclear nation.
Alex Gomez
Alex Gomez 2 yıl önce
Half lives of that isotope is cut into so fourth and keeps going lower in that half-life span
Ali Abdullah
Ali Abdullah 6 aylar önce
Its better to just make U233 from cheap thorium in a LFTR breeder reactor
Nibiru12 Yıl önce
How did Enrico Fermi enrich his uranium for the Chicago Pile reactor?
david johanson
david johanson 3 yıl önce
That was good. Gave a thumbs up. Anybody bad mouth that guy make me mad. He is a scientist, leave him alone.
Alex Gomez
Alex Gomez 2 yıl önce
Or highly grade fuel instead of bomb material I can't change the man's explosion however he provided that rich source of fuel
Zenriya Karuvyin
Zenriya Karuvyin 5 gün önce
too bad u cant bind an extra electron to one or the other, then ide say a mass driver would be better than a centrifuge. by adding magfeild resonance separataion you could force reject the u235 by mag repulsion while allowing the u238 to passthrough at velocity. also, the gravi sepiration would be much stronger in a particle accelerator than any centrifuge. u might not even need to bind the U to florine at all, using a mass driver like cern. at thoes power levels it wouldn't mater if it was a gas or not just mono molecule it first. ur standard methoid of refinement is outof date sad to say. a modified variant of cern would make a few grams in a matter of days, forget months or years. and thats without electromagnetic passthrough.
Thomas Ciarlariello
Thomas Ciarlariello 9 aylar önce
I wish isotopic nuclear materials were ubiquitous without some Walter Peck type bureaucratic restrictions since uranium 235 is an essential fuel for routine spaceflights.
Greg k
Greg k 7 aylar önce
If we could learn to manipulate gravity then enrichment would be easy.
Shane Maritch
Shane Maritch 3 yıl önce
Impressed by his ability to write backwards there. Wow
Sidewinder0010 3 yıl önce
He could be just flipping the video horizontally. However with some practice, it's not as hard as you might think.
Beers And Beats PDX
Beers And Beats PDX 3 yıl önce
Look at his wedding ring and the buttons on his coat.
Alex Gomez
Alex Gomez 2 yıl önce
No it was a extra 3 nuetrons not protons which is why 235-238 subtract those numbers
Mohabat khan Malak
Mohabat khan Malak 3 yıl önce
If the Iranians to have a nuclear bomb, it would create so much problems for them, embargoes, sanctions, isolation etc that it makes sense for them to opt out. It is also unIslamic to attack non-combatants ie the women, children etc who perish in a nuclear attack. I do know for a fact that Iran needs a huge amount of energy for its industries and domestic needs.
Mohabat khan Malak
Mohabat khan Malak 3 yıl önce
@I'm Only A Man And I Will Die Some Day Prophet Mohamed(PBUH) did not target non combatants. Where did you pick this from? On the other hand he lay the rules of how wars should be fought.
I'm Only A Man And I Will Die Some Day
@Mohabat khan Malak Quran 83:13, 3:86, 33:09, 33:26, 63:7 Are you saying that the Qu'ran, the perfect word of Allah, is false?
Mohabat khan Malak
Mohabat khan Malak 3 yıl önce
@I'm Only A Man And I Will Die Some Day Shalom...!!
I'm Only A Man And I Will Die Some Day
@Mohabat khan Malak Ah, cute, you think I'm a Jew. I'm not.
Sammy Lacks
Sammy Lacks 3 yıl önce
What s to keep Iran from reprocessing the U238 into Pu239 once they have their reactors up and running. They wouldn't need to refine Uranium any more than 3%.
Galen Matson
Galen Matson 3 yıl önce
Several things; they need to enrich to reactor grade to begin with, which requires a large enrichment infrastructure. Infrastructure we've made very expensive through sanctions and famously successful cyber attacks (stuxnet). If you have an enrichment facility you might as well keep enriching until you have bomb grade uranium. Second, the plutonium in the reactor is in the fuel rods with uranium and other transuranics which requires a complicated and expensive reprocessing facility to extract. Then the Pu239 has to be enriched to high purity, though this can be done chemically. Simply enriching uranium to bomb grade might be cheaper as it requires fewer steps. It'd be a good question for the professor.
James Newby
James Newby 2 yıl önce
The energy and space requirement to enrich/reprocess is insane... so much so it can be detected pretty easily by spy planes, or by seeing the impact on the countries electrical grid.
Evan Bell
Evan Bell 3 yıl önce
Little boy used average 80% enriched fuel. 90%+ is not required for weaponisation. Typically, the fuel for US weapons is 93.71%
zapfanzapfan 3 yıl önce
Same as the fuel for running reactors of the submarines I believe?
Evan Bell
Evan Bell 3 yıl önce
@zapfanzapfan US Naval Nuclear Propulsion reactors are around 97% enriched.
zapfanzapfan 3 yıl önce
That is impressive. I wonder what the distribution of elements and isotopes looks like after running for 25 years.
Evan Bell
Evan Bell 3 yıl önce
@zapfanzapfan Easy enough to calculate. We can estimate burn-up at end of life, and we know the probability of fission products being produced from thermal fission of U-235.
zapfanzapfan 3 yıl önce
Yes, I know there is software that can run the calculation but I don't have it.
Mr. Wonk
Mr. Wonk 3 yıl önce
What about U-233? Although not naturally occurring; still a very interesting and fissile isotope. Also, no enrichment needed; just breeding.
ttystikk rocks
ttystikk rocks 3 yıl önce
Indeed, he skipped over a lot of isotopes of uranium. I'm sure this was intentionally done in the interest of time and clarity to discuss the position of reactor fuel.
Ronald Garrison
Ronald Garrison 3 yıl önce
@ttystikk rocks I'm pretty sure the only ones with practical uses are 235, 238, and 233, maybe 234.
Feelthefx 3 yıl önce
4:14 edited by the U.S government in order to retain nuclear secrets.
Leandro laporta
Leandro laporta 3 yıl önce
Hahahaha, exactly what I thought
Madiction 2021
Madiction 2021 2 yıl önce
1. US assassinated Iran General ! 2. Israel Assassinated Iran Nuclear Scientist ! Based on UN Security council resolution Article 26 Chapter VIII those assassinations were categorized as declaration of War from a Nuclear Powers to an non nuclear country ! which allows Iran to built its Nukes for deterrence and saving Iranian existence
Madiction 2021
Madiction 2021 2 yıl önce
@Feelthefx no body has ever used Nuke except US , It's for deterrence that If US does something Soleimani Assassination, or wants to escalate remember that the US can be turned into the sand beach for centuries in case of any stupidity !
Feelthefx 2 yıl önce
@Madiction 2021 nope you’re wrong. Soleimani was not assassinated. He died on the battle field as an enemy combatant. He led attacks that killed hundreds of US soldiers. He was under sanctions by the UN and was ordered to stay in Iran. Soleimani decided to go to Iraq to lead an attack on the US embassy which is a clear act of war. He was killed in Iraq with a precision guided ninja hellfire missile. Justice was served.
Nick Charles
Nick Charles 3 yıl önce
This seemed even more impressive when I realised he’s writing backwards on the glass.
moonasha 3 yıl önce
the video is flipped horizontally in editing
robert hamilton
robert hamilton 3 yıl önce
@moonasha Maybe look how he writes 1.5 at 10:10
Peter 3 yıl önce
@robert hamilton The video is flipped horizontally. The buttons on men's blazers are sewn on the right side of the body (perspective of the wearer). The buttons on his blazer appear on the opposite side, thus the image has been flipped.
Andy Sommerlot
Andy Sommerlot 2 yıl önce
I agree the video is flipped horizontally... but he's still writing backwards as viewed thru glass. How does that video editing work?
andrew scott
andrew scott 3 yıl önce
Why not use heavy water as a moderator? Can use natural uranium i understand. Wouldn't it be easier to separate heavy water from light water than separate u235 from 238? NIH?
Maggie Jetson
Maggie Jetson 2 yıl önce
CANDU reactor use that. The problem is it is also hard to concentrate heavy water and they are a major part of the cost of a CANDU reactor. So centrifuge for heavy water or centrifuge for U235, your choice.
andrew scott
andrew scott 2 yıl önce
@Maggie Jetson so dispose toxic waste, and working with corrosive uranium hexafluoride vs water, and the separation process goes on for the life of the plant. How often does the heavy water need refreshing? Imagine the costs of a plant to separate u236 are not insignificant. Heavy water plant not cheap I imagine, but waste disposal has to be easier. Don't need people to wear radiation detectors with water. Don't know, but it seems candu offers some benefits.
Maggie Jetson
Maggie Jetson 2 yıl önce
@andrew scott Why don't you ask the Canadian, they have it figured out with the CANDU reactors.
Alex Gomez
Alex Gomez 2 yıl önce
And if those countries also have nuclear weapons let them know what they really have in their hands
Moses Mila Mayat
Moses Mila Mayat 3 yıl önce
Assuming energy resources permanently run out, that is to say they are (finite), there is no point in killing each other - USA, N.Korea, Iran and so on, over finite resources because even if anyone emerges as the ultimate winner after killing off all other competitors, that winner will eventually be met with a resource depleted world, meaning they would in the end - after all that murderous struggle & victory, die too. Surely our intellect should enable us to see such an out come. Assuming that energy resources do not run out permanently - which it seems is the case, but rather there can be periodic shortages, we can do one of two things. Either we continue to kill each other using the resources we have accumulated, from sources that do not run out permanently - a completely and utterly wrong thing to do, to use up the very infinite resources to destroy ourselves, or use those very resources to find more resources there by mitigating the shortages. This choice has been open to us since the dawn of our existence and will always be until we wake up to it. If we assume that humanity has a half life of 100 million years, the point being it is much less than the half life of elements of Uranium or the sun (sources of energy), this means the human life will run out (extinct) way long before these energy source will do. So these energy resources are infinite with respect to the humans maximum life spun. It seems we are killing each other under the mistake that resources run out permanently which is not true. They are sometimes in short supply. It is smatter to use the resources to find more because it is endless. I hope we learn this and quickly change. Both war and peace require huge investments one is unquestionably better than the other. Finally evidently no energy resources have really permanently run out in the last 1000 years. There is only theoretical speculation that they could run out permanently based on a mono-intellectualism.
Daddy Feed
Daddy Feed 3 yıl önce
Heat is what does all the work, we have plenty in the earth's core plus the sun. So what you are saying is the earth will go on but we won't! Greed, arrogance and compacency get in the way of progress.
KARTIK SAXENA 3 aylar önce
Now I am on a watch list
Alex Gomez
Alex Gomez 2 yıl önce
Two ways you can enrich 238 either turn it into a gas or spin it very fast
Bluest 3 yıl önce
It is arrogant in the extreme for us to speak with concern over Iran's potential weapons program, when we have stacked unimaginably dangerous and destructive nuclear weapons around the globe like cordwood, and escalated an arms race that caused Russia to do the same. It is clear Iran is far more balanced and sane than the US. Check to see how many school shootings they had in the last ten years, for example. So, as far as Iran, it's Iran's business.
punhoss 3 yıl önce
They hang homosexuals from wires publicly.. Tell me again how they are balanced.
Derek Maggard
Derek Maggard 3 yıl önce
If Iran gets nuclear weapons then several nations such as Egypt and Saudi Arabia will pursue them. The genie is already out of the bottle, but the US policy is meant to help contain the chaos by trying to hold nations to their nonnuclear agreements they chose to make so as to prevent another situation like India-Pakistan. MAD is insane, that may be why it's worked so far. Don't see how school shootings are relevant to international diplomacy except that you weren't able to actually come up with a single good example.
Maru D
Maru D 7 aylar önce
February 2023 - Iran has a 84% enriched Uranium, IAEA screwed it again
Alex Gomez
Alex Gomez 2 yıl önce
Only 3% is reactor fuel
Saw Goodmen
Saw Goodmen 3 yıl önce
Can you enrich gold?
Zenriya Karuvyin
Zenriya Karuvyin 5 gün önce
about as tight as your average Hvac system lol.
Kiana unlimited
Kiana unlimited 5 aylar önce
Where do we get 1.0043 number from?
Julian Weiser
Julian Weiser 2 yıl önce
So enrichment actually is no enrichment at all. It is just separation.
Alex Gomez
Alex Gomez 2 yıl önce
I suggest all nuclear bombs be disabled since they have 90% u 235 they are literally loaded with the good stuff that's if they can do it but to be clear they just need to extract 235 and the nuclear weapons are disabled and we can actually use that source of uranium 235 without spending all this money on the process just one nuclear bomb has 90% of uranium 235 that's 90% not 3% which these reactors produce they are talking about uranium enrichment when their bombs are filled with them
B226 T&J
B226 T&J 2 yıl önce
I live about 15 minutes away from Oak Ridge, I always thought that it was Oakridge, I'm glad I'm only in High School.
Mert Metin
Mert Metin 3 yıl önce
Thanks to you, soon my homemade nuclear bomb will be ready, i want to be superpower in my district
Alchemist 2 yıl önce
I don't think there will be any notion of a state let alone a district of you detonate it
Tiny Mints
Tiny Mints 3 yıl önce
thank you for teaching me how to make a nuclear bomb
Etheoma 3 yıl önce
Ah you want a nuclear reactor Iran... then how about a heavy water reactor that can use natural uranium.
IamJacksColon4 3 yıl önce
Iran already has one.
Etheoma 3 yıl önce
@IamJacksColon4 A Heavy water reactor, then what is there excuse for wanting to enrich Uranium. A heavy water reactor doesn't need enriched Uranium due to the heavy water not eating any neutrons.
Andrew Browner
Andrew Browner 3 yıl önce
@IamJacksColon4 what this guy said but in less vulgar terms.. the US sitting on enough bombs to split the planet but hey hey no one else is allowed any
IamJacksColon4 3 yıl önce
Lachlan Allen Iran is responsible for destroying ISIS where the west funded them to take down Assad. So who is the fundamentalist here?
Josey Lastborn
Josey Lastborn 3 yıl önce
Well the order that I'm watching the videos and the my downloaded video list is not available to anybody else and so my last comment was on a video unrelated to the video that was in the top of the screen in the Android TRvid app. But I caught the bug before, during this time and I exited from reply and went into I hope just getting to the good stuff video that I just watched comment list. I also hope that the error is only in the display of the two comments for two different videos a moment ago one on top of the other when I was actually about to comment on this third video but that seems unlikely. So I'm going to have to fix that at some point myself and I don't know how I'm going to get a bug report to TRvid but if the channel or could please understand what has happened when I said I finished watching the video in my prior comment I thought it was suspicious because I thought I had already finished watching the video when I made the prior, and of course I had it was just a different video and my last comment was likely the only comment I made on the entire video so my hypothesis which was speculation about why there were two comments there is apparently now in retrospect unknowingly not what I thought I was saying which was not speculation but obvious fact and since it's wrong it was an obvious fact and I hope my speculation is correct about what it in fact was in terms of being speculation as discussed. Now I used to joke with an electric utility Economist about the tubes that were seized being for swing sets not for the centrifuges and he laughed a lot at that joke but it's not any funnier for me now seeing that the centrifuges are for gas not for what I assumed them to be which is something other than gas spinning gases is something new to me and it seems to be a way to separate water vapor from Air. My understanding is that there is no reaction between the nitrogen and the oxygen in air and H2O molecule so you should be able to spin the air and my team spend a lot of time working out various techniques in terms of for example of vinyl record whether or not you would want to have the water be taken away from the oxygen and nitrogen by pushing it Downstream essentially as it spins and as the groove runs or not Downstream and whether you want the groove to be in the direction of the spin on the disc
John Farmer
John Farmer 2 yıl önce
no talk about laser separation
Trying to make a Metal Gear.
Hi Everyone
Hi Everyone Yıl önce
Aha! He is not leftie, they flipped the video to make the letters readable from our perspective, case solved!
Space 2 yıl önce
Hello FBI, I'm harmlessly curious.
Muneeb Yıl önce
Is he writing in reverse 😳
Norbert Sós
Norbert Sós Yıl önce
The video is just mirrored
Joey Koningsbruggen
Joey Koningsbruggen 3 yıl önce
Am I being explained how to make a nuclear bomb?
J Brady
J Brady 3 yıl önce
If you can build giant centrifuge arrays requiring highly engineered high speed steel...
Joey Koningsbruggen
Joey Koningsbruggen 3 yıl önce
@J Brady brb
Nunya Bidniz
Nunya Bidniz 3 yıl önce
No, as he clearly stated in the lecture, the information on how to build a Little Boy nuke is already out there in the wild [hint: it's MUCH simpler than building a Fat Man plutonium-based nuke, but of course, the material is much more arduous to concentrate...]
Connor Rivers
Connor Rivers 3 yıl önce
I'm not sure any one person or small group has the capital, know how or oppurtunity to build a nuke.
Nunya Bidniz
Nunya Bidniz 3 yıl önce
@Connor Rivers Actually, the know-how is out there. There was an author a few years back who basically compiled a book on how to build a Little Boy bomb from declassified sources. The only reason we see the *creation* [as opposed to buying mil-surp Russian nukes during the '90s] limited to state-actors is the economies of scale associated with the refining process. But it's entirely within the means of a modern large multinational... [Hughes, Bechtel, etc.]
Ronald Garrison
Ronald Garrison 3 yıl önce
The real lack of moderation is not in reactor cores. It's in this comment section.
ansis maleckis
ansis maleckis 3 yıl önce
How come it is perfectly fine for USA, Israel, Russia, Pakistan, India, China and even North Korea to own nuclear weapons but there is so much fuss when Iran tries to enrich uranium?
Adam Kendall
Adam Kendall 3 yıl önce
You can't be that naive can you?
Nurlatifah Mohdnor
Page 351 Douay Bible or Version = n an English translation of the Bible from the Vulgate by Catholic scholars at Douai, a city in N France, in 1610.
Nurlatifah Mohdnor
R_d I met 'and' and 'Dan' side by side in Rd issue Nov. 2017. What a coincidence. dan = and = & Rad. Red Rid Rod Rud+E
Peter Houle
Peter Houle 3 yıl önce
watch this before TRvid removes it!
Evan Bell
Evan Bell 3 yıl önce
This is very surface level information readily available online.
Mohabat khan Malak
Mohabat khan Malak 3 yıl önce
But the Iranians have been open about their nuclear program and have allowed inspectors in to monitor their enrichment. So what is the problem..? Personally I don't think the Iranians are interested in a bomb as they have no territorial ambitions. They do have interests such as looking after the well being of their shia brethren in Lebanon, Iraq, Syria and Yemen. Does this outweigh fighting a nuclear war..? Against cities, full of non combatants, women, children and the elderly?
Mr Java66
Mr Java66 3 yıl önce
Mohabat khan Malak Iran can't make its own gasoline, but is making nuclear power. This feels inherently dubious. Iran refused an offer from Russia to have uranium enrichment done for them by Russia. U.k., France, Germany, China, Russia, and under Obama, the u.s., all agreed that they didn't believe it. This was the basis of the talks to limit Iran.
Mr Java66
Mr Java66 3 yıl önce
Btw, Iran probably no longer is an importer of gasoline. And, at this time, The imports are a small portion of the total Iranian consumption. en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/National_Iranian_Oil_Refining_and_Distribution_Company
Mohabat khan Malak
Mohabat khan Malak 3 yıl önce
@Mr Java66 The worlds largest oil refinery is in Abadan, Iran and they can refine so much gasoline as to supply your country for a year. While I was living in the Arabian Gulf, I had several Iranian friends, some of whom were in prominent positions in government and business. They are good people who want peace and just get on with life. Nobody wants confrontation or conflict and all the negativity associated with these. "Treat others the way you want to be treated". Respect.
John Woods
John Woods 3 yıl önce
Charon 73
Charon 73 Yıl önce
Kevin Balch
Kevin Balch 2 yıl önce
Of course the US trades with and provides aid to Pakistan, India and Israel who each have nuclear weapons and have not signed the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty. Israel got its bomb grade uranium for its first nuclear weapons by stealing it in the 1960s from a US plant in Apollo, PA that made nuclear reactor fuel for the US Navy. To cover the theft, they had to use poor material handling accountability that left the plant as a Superfund site that US taxpayers had to pay to cleanup. It was the sloppy material accounting that made the Atomic Energy Commission suspicious. The CIA later obtained physical evidence from Israel that had the same isotopic signature as the missing uranium.
IamJacksColon4 3 yıl önce
So much propaganda.
Evan Bell
Evan Bell 3 yıl önce
How so?
IamJacksColon4 3 yıl önce
@Evan Bell Nobody's business if Iran wants to enrich uranium or not.
Evan Bell
Evan Bell 3 yıl önce
@IamJacksColon4 Well, it is if Iran has clearly expressed intentions to destroy civilians in nearby countries with nuclear weapons, it is..
IamJacksColon4 3 yıl önce
@Evan Bell never done so, show me where they said that? its funny how israel has occupied a nation and its people for over 60years but that seems ok for some reason.