Can water solve a maze? 

Steve Mould
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30 Mar 2023




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Steve Mould
Steve Mould Aylar önce
This video explains why I had a blue splodge on my face in the last video! The sponsor is 80,000 hours. Head to 80000hours.org/steve to start planning a career that is meaningful, fulfilling, and helps solve one of the world’s most pressing problems.
Matteo Clementel
Matteo Clementel Aylar önce
Awesome Steve :)
j p
j p Aylar önce
Nah. I’m good. Thanks tho
LokiFrog Aylar önce
If you put small holes in the clear acrylic at the "top" of dead end pockets that are sealed it might cause the water to go more places. presumably more water would go down then out of the holes because gravity should still be stronger.
BeeKeeper Aylar önce
Gsup7s Aylar önce
Well you know Mercury has a pretty low pressure before boiling. Or you could try making a super fluid. That's always fun.
ElectroBOOM Aylar önce
You know what I think can solve the puzzle flowing through the main path right away?? Smoke! Pushing smoke into the puzzle, it will flow through the path of least resistance from the start
Kaleb Peters
Kaleb Peters Aylar önce
Yeah! And as a bonus it can solve mazes where the exit is above the entrance
aande's channel
aande's channel Aylar önce
My guess would be though, that smoke would fill much more of the maze over time, because it doesn't have the surface tension of water.
Fred Aylar önce
Yes, that is almost the same as at 6:36 where the pre-filled maze is fed with different colored water. If the air pockets were also pre-filled with water, then it would be exactly the same.
Mileyard Gigahertz
Mileyard Gigahertz Aylar önce
@Fred Nice observation. And of course ElectroBOOM would suggest smoke, a product of explosions😂
DukeGarland Aylar önce
Infinity electricity kinda solves a maze in real life all the time - that's how the lightnings get their shapes
I_AM_AWESOME_j Aylar önce
the fact that a maze is two separate pieces blew my mind more than the water maze. It makes perfect sense but I have never thought of that!
Stephen Aylar önce
100% lol, same here! I never thought of that and I STILL can't wrap my head around *WHY* that is, lol
Sage of PHY6 Paths
Sage of PHY6 Paths Aylar önce
Ega x Wandering
Ega x Wandering Aylar önce
I'm confused why it has to be two pieces?
Ega x Wandering
Ega x Wandering Aylar önce
Oh, right, because one of them never touches the other.
SajtosNokedli Aylar önce
It can be made of 3 pieces or 4 pieces or 5 pieces
whoisit Aylar önce
Directly to the experiments in less than 1 minute, now this is the channel that deserves to be popular.
Jarrod Braun
Jarrod Braun Aylar önce
Legitimately almost didn't click because I didn't want to sit through 8 minutes of "hype" for an underwhelming reveal at the end of the video. This was not that, and I was pleasantly surprised
Eft Aylar önce
i mean it kinda is, not everyone has 2m subs
unknown Aylar önce
its just straight to the damn point
DanX Aylar önce
Yeah just forward the video 9 waste of time minutes
chickeninthecorner 23 gün önce
@DanX yeah!! this video is so cool!
lqr824 Aylar önce
5:28 Even in a multiply-connected maze (one with multiple successful paths), you can be sure that the walls of the ENTRYWAY will be the walls of the exit, as long as the entry and exit are on the outside border of the maze. I didn't realize that until you showed your "coloring the walls" at 2:50 then mentioned that two paths would create a middle part. That middle part won't be the left or right wall of the entrance, but would necessarily be an "island" in the middle. The interesting thing is that you can't just wander around and decide later to use this algorithm: you need to commit to it at the very entrance to the maze. And, it only works if the exit is also on an external wall, not say a stairs in the middle of the level, or say a goal or treasure of some kind not adjacent to an exterior wall.
This doesn't work in 3d mazes (multi-level)
TCXD11 Aylar önce
Though generally not a problem, if you're starting from the middle of a maze (e.g. you're blindfolded and carried to the starting point, or you forgot to use the strategy until later), then there'd be no guarantee.
lqr824 Aylar önce
@TCXD11 I explained that in detail.
TCXD11 Aylar önce
@lqr824 yeah, I reread that more clearly after I already posted the reply, but oh well.
sthenzel Aylar önce
The "keep your right hand on a wall" always works, IF you start doing so from the entrance! A maze may have two or more paths to the exit and therefore has more than two wall structures, but it will always have just two outside ones.
André Hil
André Hil Aylar önce
I thought the same thing!
The Hunters
The Hunters Aylar önce
Actually it doesn’t work at all if there are any floating walls in the maze, as in walls that don’t connect to the outside. Left or right wall doesn’t matter. Sometimes the floating wall is obvious and sometimes it’s not. Oh, and it only works if you can touch the outside wall directly from the entrance.
sthenzel Aylar önce
@The Hunters At the entrance there is always an outside wall! It may be part of a 'floating' wall, yes, but then there´s more than one entrance. In that case, switch the same hand to the other wall of the newfound entrance.
The Hunters
The Hunters Aylar önce
@sthenzel I know. Just expanding on the conversation because that’s what I like to do.
Christopher Wellman
I've always wanted to map the Paris Catacombs by spray painting a white line along the right wall.
Magrior Aylar önce
Definitely one of these concepts that I never would've thought about on my own but are really interesting if someone brings them up. If you wouldn't mind the mess, you could maybe drill small holes near the top of the "air chambers", so the water could push the air out of the maze and get closer to bergman's simulation?
Nico# Aylar önce
and connect them to tubes pointing upwards so the pressure would equilibrate and you don't have blue liquid everywhere :)
Арсений Федоров
I think, that mercury could solve this problem
Mike Fochtman
Mike Fochtman Aylar önce
Regarding surface tension, try solving the smaller maze with 'wetter' water. Reduce the surface tension of water by dissolving some alcohol in it. :) Might be interesting with different fluids as well.
Yozo Aylar önce
Steve Mould
Steve Mould Aylar önce
Or pure alcohol, or add soap. Great idea!
Eric Moss
Eric Moss Aylar önce
@Steve Mould Or superfluid helium-4! 😂
David Ellison
David Ellison Aylar önce
I saw soap bubbles in your red/blue section so assume you used a detergent or other surfactant.
Kram1032 Aylar önce
@Eric Moss omg, superfluid helium would be an amazing test as it also can crawl *up* - it'd presumably solve the maze pretty much exactly by the keep-hand-on-wall method. That said, if water was already a difficult thing to seal against, helium manages to be nigh impossible lol
Chaz Hani-Okoroafor
I really think you should look into getting the big versions of the mazes into a gallery. They are really beautiful art pieces against that white background. The blue liquid is really radiant
Chitus Aylar önce
This is fascinating, really nice work on constructing the mazes too.
XvoseEthereal 20 gün önce
This is amazing. You could hypothetically have a huge containment of water with multiple maze plugs of different tensions to simulate different distributions instead of larger or smaller ducts
Recb Bsim
Recb Bsim Aylar önce
I had never thought of a maze being in two halves - and yet it's so obvious when you think about it! Steve is like the Johnny Ball of the digital age
PHOON DA YUAN Moe Aylar önce
Every now and then I find videos like these that are on more of the complicated side of things and they really intrigue me. It just scratches the right spot on my brain to keep watching
Thomas Schmidt
Thomas Schmidt Aylar önce
Realizing every maze has two halves was a surprising revelation I didn’t expect.
Elliott Aylar önce
Certain types of mazes*
Elliott Aylar önce
Notice there are no loops in these?
Elliott Aylar önce
It's actually pretty obvious when you consider a solution must exist and there are no islands
thewiseturtle Aylar önce
AT LEAST two (separate) parts. Not two parts. Many mazes have many separate disconnected walls. (There's no requirement for only having one possible solution in a maze.)
Skyl3t0n Aylar önce
@Elliott That would make it 3 parts.
Jack Aylar önce
You could try substituting the water with some type sort of oil used in vacuum pumps to test the maze under a vacuum. The oil shouldn't be too hard to get your hands on and they all have very low vapour pressures
Dr Basil
Dr Basil Aylar önce
As a physicist, I must say that it looks oddly satisfying (and accurate). This is the first time I see this channel btw. Immediate subscription activated 😌
Adrian Albinni
Adrian Albinni 10 gün önce
The water in the tank came to a halt like a car going uphill with its engine’s torque just short of power. The water in the maze needed more weight pushing down so it could push up all those nooks and crannies and fight against gravity and surface tension alike. Truly fascinating. :)
Razer1905 2.0 _
Razer1905 2.0 _ 4 gün önce
This would be a good physics game type of thing. I could watch this for hours, literal hours.
Lazy DK
Lazy DK Aylar önce
Regarding the 2 paths leasing to 3 walls you can 'hug'. It still works holding the hand on a wall, if you do so when you enter the maze. The 3rd middle part that loops wont be one of the walls at the entrance. So unless walls are shifting its a pretty safe approach
James Scholes
James Scholes Aylar önce
Possibly beyond the abilities of your laser cutter, but if you could make a membrane with holes which were small enough to let through air but not water you might be able to recreate the BergmanJoe maze that way. Lots of "air escape hatches"
GandalfsBeard Aylar önce
Or one could "lay down" the maze and leave the top open. All you'd need to make water flow in with some urgency is an upward slope (a funnel or an angled tube for example) at the entrance. One could also make a small ceiling (or height gate) at the entrance limting the height the water will reach, in order to avoid splashover. This may be less difficult to execute than laser cutting a membrane
lance862 Aylar önce
As someone who's explored a lot of computer game maps I will say the idea of putting your left hand on the wall and trying to just follow it almost always works but you can end up with geometries where it has you always avoiding the turn that you need to take so if you do that approach can you find yourself circling back to where you started switch to the other wall.
Rhythm Treble
Rhythm Treble 23 gün önce
I had a feeling it would be surface tension being too strong for the water to overcome it. You present your paradoxes and caviats in such a good manner its more like an assist than me just knowing it
Minor Edit
Minor Edit Aylar önce
Interesting that at 3:44 at soon as the air in the middle section is sealed off, the water starts to climb on the right side. Seems it gets quite significantly affected by the pressure differential.
Hunting 29 gün önce
I cant believe how many things I learned from this. I was not expecting this much from a "pouring water in maze" video! 😃
__ Aylar önce
That last part is so interesting. Blue water has figured out the maze and now the red water can go directly to the end with virtually no loss
Jan Bam
Jan Bam Aylar önce
I wonder if there's some kind of force(?) flowing upstream from the end to the start??
Lone Starr
Lone Starr Aylar önce
@Jan Bam A negative pressure difference, basically. Like pulling water through a drinking straw.
w花b Aylar önce
If it was a human sized maze maybe we could follow the current and also get out
First Last
First Last Aylar önce
The blue water is basically doing the same thing that the air did in the smaller maze. It's blocking the "wrong" paths, and instead of surface tension, there's just the boundary between two liquids of the same density - they're not going to mix very much at all in such a small time frame, so it's basically just a question of whether the blue water has anywhere to go when the red water pushes against it.
unfa🇺🇦 Aylar önce
That's because the 1st pass water has blocked off all the dead ends, making it so any pressure can only be relieved directly towards the exit.
Olina Kin
Olina Kin Aylar önce
It would be interesting to see pressure gauges in certain areas
mlmenere 25 gün önce
Would love to see this inside a vacuum to see if it's closer to the simulated model
daWizardFrodo Aylar önce
6:00 not only just surface tension but as you said earlier for the small mazes, air pressure. The first lip looks impossible if no air prevents the water from moving. All the little pockets of air that you see have formed along the correct path (unlike the incorrect path in the small model, although there is still some of that) to help hold up that massive head of water.
Kawka Zlodem
Kawka Zlodem Aylar önce
You're right, I would even say that it's pretty much only about pressure, surface tension has very little impact here. Pressure difference is nicely visible in the little siphon in the top right corner - free water surface is much lower on the right side than on the left which means that air pressure on the right is higher. And you can see why - because the air on the right is sealed off while that on the left can still escape (that happens in 5:30). You can also nicely see how the air pressure grows in the whole sealed right part of the maze. In about 5:15 the right part is sealed off and then water goes further up to top left corner of the maze (reached at about 5:27) on the left side of that seal, and you can see how the free water surface on the right side also moves up but much less, just enough to reduce volume and increase pressure of the air trapped there so that it equalizes growing hydrostatic pressure of water column on the left. Also, as the water stops flowing, the difference in height between tank above maze and surface on the other side of first siphon and that of to two sides of that column of water dividing right and left side are visibly similar (not exactly the same, because there are other siphons with uneven pressure on both sides).
SciTech Vault
SciTech Vault 18 gün önce
You are an amazing scientist and a top-class educator.
Kwaq84 Aylar önce
There are couple of important things this experiment shows, especially when dye is added. It shows what happens when there are unused lines in water delivery piping (like for example building hydrants sharing same line with tap water). It can become breeding ground for bacterias, eg. Legionella, despite water moving, and that's why it's important to use backflow prevention valves.
Knug Lidi
Knug Lidi Aylar önce
'water age' is indeed a critical factor in delivery quality water. This is why municipalities and other agencies controlling water supply model and test for water age as part of the design of new expansions to an existing system. Areas of known longer ages, are regularly flushed. Additionally, modifications to the distribution system can help eliminate these regions. one tool in this fight is preventing a dendritic (tree-root) branching of the system. By carefully utilizing loops and and multiple paths, it is possible to significantly reduce water age.
Kaitlyn L
Kaitlyn L Aylar önce
This is also why I always run the tap until the water is genuinely cold, to ensure it’s not been sitting around for who knows how long in the building or the street. Sometimes it happens quickly when there must be high turnover but sometimes it takes a few minutes.
Knug Lidi
Knug Lidi Aylar önce
@Kaitlyn L Temperature isn't a bad guide, although the 'new' water from the street (which is buried, so likely cooler) will have to cool your warmer piping down, so once you feel the temp start to drop, you've likely got 'fresher' street water at the tap
karol306 Aylar önce
That's why I don't trust the campaigns that say that water treatment is so good that you can drink straight from the tap. I do believe that the water from the treatment plant is great, but there's no way I trust those pipes between them and my flat, not to mention those in the building itself.
Knug Lidi
Knug Lidi Aylar önce
@karol306 I'm sorry that you distrust your water distribution system. I would suggest you sample your own water from your own tap and have it tested (at your own cost) against your national drinking water standards at a private, independent lab for your own peace of mind. If, in the unlikely event that your water falls outside of the national standards, your local distribution maintaining agency will be VERY interested in your results.
Gabriel Atienza
Gabriel Atienza 6 gün önce
Videos of the build process would be awsome. Coming up with a question is easy, coming up with an experiment that answers it, is part art, part science.
My magnificent self
what a cool way to do science! i have to say that ive never thought about weather water could solve a maze but i was not expecting the results you came up with. a-maze-ing!
lujayn3 25 gün önce
I would have liked to see the maze in a horizontal position too because I think it would allow the air in those dead end areas to escape so maybe the water would have gone to more areas before exiting
bocoy noiu
bocoy noiu Aylar önce
I like your videos, because of the way you present things. It's like the way I do things in my head. I love puzzles and mazes. Have you tried using a 3d printer to make the things
Dylan Green
Dylan Green Aylar önce
You could make a liquid calculator for integrals. Might be interesting :)
David Ellison
David Ellison Aylar önce
I loved the solution of cutting slots in the upper acrylic plate to allow the solvent to reach the surfaces you wanted to solvent weld.
rofltehcat Aylar önce
For the smaller maze, you can just fill a flat metal/ceramic tray with just barely enough solvent to cover the bottom. Then put the maze into it with the side you want to solvent weld. Leave it in there for like 10-30 seconds. Then take it out, and set it onto the panel you want to weld it to. Because the maze is so finicky, I'd still do the first side with the syringe. This process works for all kinds of parts and actually tends to give a cleaner, more even, weld. However, since you're using laser-cut pieces you'll have plenty of micro-cracks in them after getting them into contact with solvent (unless you tempered them afterwards), they are probably just hard to see in the black acrylic. For large pieces this works too but of course you'd need a pretty large tray (or one custom-made for the job) and a lot of solvent. You also don't need to actually submerge the pieces, just lowering them until the solvent pulls itself onto the welding surface is actually better (because it only coats the surface and because the solvent doesn't get squeezed out) but a bit finicky, you might be able to put some uncoated steel wires into it as an offset. Source: Sometimes do this at work, but for most pieces the syringe method works just fine.
Anup nc
Anup nc Aylar önce
Great job Steve... I see all your videos.... And you explain a complex concept in easy way..... ❤️❤️
hernanc Aylar önce
At 2:38 how about creating grooves that match with the maze and flooding the grooves with solvent? Hope it helps in future videos. Thank you for the video Steve!
Simon Sajan Kumar
Simon Sajan Kumar Aylar önce
Hey Steve Just a thought. What would happen if you put the maze horizontally and “shot” water through the maze? Would the water solve the puzzle differently then?
MaqAv Aylar önce
very interesting, I'm glad I got here. I have a question: regardless of the erratic movement, there seems to be a pattern, however what would happen if the entrance/exit of the maze was at the left/right sides?
Michael Sun
Michael Sun Aylar önce
The fact that you always has 2 pieces for a working maze means that the topology is a real science.
Jon Fehr
Jon Fehr Aylar önce
If you wanted to simulate the simulation you could put a small vent hole at the top of each isolated section of the geometry and then just cover/plug the hole once water starts leaking out of the venting hole. That should be easily done in the larger versions and you just need something like flex tape to cover the vents. it won't look as pretty but the physics should work.
SilverLining Aylar önce
Obligatory flex tape meme here
3D_Dean Aylar önce
Putting in a air release valve would also work so he could avoid manually covering the holes
Roberts Petersons
Roberts Petersons Aylar önce
Also, by treating every maze surface by a hydrophobic repellent, you could reduce the surface tension friction. Would be fun to see the results and how they compare to the vacuum simulation 🙂
Young Gandalf
Young Gandalf Aylar önce
Wouldn't that be like creating a maze with multiple exits or paths? Not really a maze?
CyberWomble Aylar önce
@Young Gandalf See them as emergency exits and hang little "no exit, staff only" signs on them. The air can be considered staff.
Burnt_Alive Aylar önce
This is pretty awesome, I now want to build something similar to mount on the wall in my shop/office as a water feature.
Kyle Miller
Kyle Miller Aylar önce
The two colors of water made me think it could be cool to see that but where the whole maze is completely filled with the first color. If you use a slightly more dense second liquid (salt water?) maybe that might simulate the animation through mixing?
foxpup Aylar önce
If you "print"/etch a maze pattern on a circuit board and apply electrodes to the exit points and run electricity through it and look at it with a FLIR infrared scope you should see a solution too with the right settings. :-) (provided the the travel path is where the metal film remains and the walls are actually voids where the metal has been removed :-) ) The set up should have no trouble solving gigantic complex mazes, as big as the circuit board can be and with small channels down to the printing resolution. 🙂
mjw7994 Aylar önce
Regarding using the "hand on one wall" method to go through a multipath maze, as long as you pick a wall right at the entrance then you should still always find your way out. Any extra paths would create a third piece to the maze, but by necessity it would have to be in between the two outer parts which must be the two parts bisected by the entrance and exit.
Juniper Berri
Juniper Berri Aylar önce
I wrote a longer comment about this but also if there are 2 entrances and 2 exits, you must find a path from an entrance to an exit, and the paths between each entrance and the exits connect, there is a chance the wall you follow will lead you on a path between the two entrances instead of to an exit, but that's the only thing I can think of that would defeat the algorithm, barring dropping someone in the middle of the maze instead of starting them at an entrance... or having no paths from the entrance to an exit, obv.
DreadLindwyrm Aylar önce
@Juniper Berri You can theoretically have traps and one way doors in a real maze, so that you can go through a particular section one way, but not leave through the same area - meaning that you'll get trapped in the section beyond the one way door. Or you place the exit in the "middle" part by having a tunnel up or down from one of the rooms that's only accessible through the third part of the maze.
Lunali Aylar önce
Another solution I've seen in real world mazes is to have checkpoints in the maze that have to be reached for the maze to be considered complete.
Cory Zilligen
Cory Zilligen Aylar önce
This only works if the starting point is along the outer wall of the maze (which is _generally_ the case, but not necessarily). If you are starting from a random location within the middle of the maze, then you have no way of knowing whether the wall you touch would be connected to the exit or not.
Jonah Zurn
Jonah Zurn Aylar önce
It is also possible for the exit to the maze to be a staircase or ladder or something which is placed within the maze. That would mean that you could follow the outer wall in a complete loop and never find the exit.
David B
David B Aylar önce
I have wondered about this for a long time. Wondered but never quite sure if I could build it. Thank you for building and showing it. For the surface tension try adding soap.
Tommy B
Tommy B Aylar önce
Your tests are great to be used by cave divers, people going deep underground exploring cave systems. So that in case of storms outside and flooding in the caves, they ca use as a model to predict safe places for setting up camps. I've seen a story about such a situation of a deep dive and a storm that lasted several days outside leading to huge flooding in the cave.
Mason Aylar önce
It's funny watching this as a software engineer because a lot of these different algorithms are used in machine learning. For instance the large simple maze takes the path that "takes you lower" and is actually a searching algorithm called depth first search used to find an end goal state.
Jay Geo
Jay Geo Aylar önce
Next time you try to paste the second side, pour solvent in a flat plate, dip the side of the maze you want to stick and then place the acrylic sheet, no more missed gaps! Cheers!
chase tuttle
chase tuttle Aylar önce
I'm curious what would happen if you drilled a hole in the back side of the air pockets to allow the air a path out. This might make a closer representation to the simulation. Second, could you try this on a horizontal maze as well?
Donald Sayers
Donald Sayers Aylar önce
With your second complicated, big maze, I don't think it is surface tension but an air lock, the path repeatedly goes up then down so if there is a bubble in each up bit, it requires a minimum head of water to overcome the sum of the uphill parts.
Andrew Harrison
Andrew Harrison Aylar önce
Lukas Schmidt
Lukas Schmidt Aylar önce
Agree too
Lucas Hartmann
Lucas Hartmann Aylar önce
My kitchen sink agrees
Donald Sayers
Donald Sayers Aylar önce
@Lucas Hartmann My car cooling system agrees.
okloster0 Aylar önce
Physics agrees
Adam Sharp
Adam Sharp Aylar önce
Thats so cool to see and a bit hypnotic I could marvel at water flowing for a long time having one of those mazes in a case with colored water cycling through it sounds like a fitting decoration for a high end office I want one it reminds me of my water timer for board games way more fun to use
STthecat Aylar önce
2:14 I like how water can’t solve the harder maze but the air bubbles can
hantasy Creations
hantasy Creations Aylar önce
Suggestion: AMBITIOUS idea with real life application... the air pockets remind me of the Tham Luang cave rescue, where 13 boys survived a monsoon in a cave system by finding the room with air. I never understood how there was enough air underground until this video. Could there be a way to 3d map cave systems and simulate flooding to find the safest places to survive in such events?
Derek Hayes
Derek Hayes Aylar önce
Hi, great video, I love the mazes! I have a different hypothesis for why the water doesn't fully drain from the reservoir though (5:50), I believe it is likely that the maze is essentially creating numerous "P" traps that causes air bubbles between the different sections. After all the P traps are full, new water would have to compress the air in the bubbles to make room for the new incoming water, causing the resistance. Though if you added enough water pressure to push the air bubbles all the way through I bet you would get some proper syphon action!
Jake Aston
Jake Aston Aylar önce
yep, heaps of airlocks you get them all the time in caravan grey water pipes
Jake Aston
Jake Aston Aylar önce
just like this video
beeble2003 2 gün önce
Yes, it can't be surface tension because, although he points at lots of places where surface tension happens, the water flow is stopped by the first one of those places, so the rest of the surface tension sites are irrelevant.
Thunderbelch Aylar önce
Lots of cool observations, well done!
Ian Gillespie
Ian Gillespie Aylar önce
man, you really nailed the lighting on the larger mazes, the contrast of the "walls" is perfect
Static Builds
Static Builds Aylar önce
This shows the difference between physical and digital simulations. In digital there is always something overlooked like the ire pressure in this situation which is why its always important to test the digital one on a small scale first.
Freakazoid! 22 gün önce
Yup. It's interesting that lots of times when I'm reading good info on using a simulation or simulator of/for something it's recommended to do the real thing along with a simulator. I have peripherals for simulator games but should probably get rid of them because I don't access to the real world counterpart to get the most out of the simulation.
Ash Walker
Ash Walker Aylar önce
I don't know why the TRvid algorithm suggested this video to me, but I'm so glad it did. This is the kind of content I need more of
ViXoZuDo Aylar önce
you should try to do it with the maze almost horizontally like 5° with no top cover and higher walls... Just close the "entrance" so it became a container and should behave more like the simulation since you're removing the "air gap" variable.
Bryan Gilmore
Bryan Gilmore Aylar önce
It’s an air lock, there’s too many areas where- as you said before- have air bubbles that have to travel downward before they can go back up to make way for the water. This takes the momentum and flow of the initial pour and weight of water in the reservoir- at a certain point the momentum and weight of the water gets low enough, that the residual air pockets and pressure neutralize it and it stops flowing.
Blue Collar
Blue Collar Aylar önce
I think the key is that you have enough pressure from above to force the water to move against gravity. If you only had enough to navigate the maze and a bit more, it might not force the water all the way through
LucasFroitzheim Aylar önce
I love by the way how you included the animation clip at the beginning but still motivated us to watch the original which supports its creator. Just love it
E Aylar önce
Redfyres ASOIAF
Redfyres ASOIAF Aylar önce
Also that he wasn't 'shaming' the animation creator (for lack of a better word) for not having realistic graphics but instead said things along the lines of 'he animated something I can't recreate'.
lucromel Aylar önce
6:20 I have a theory. The maze has several areas where the water has to go up to continue moving through the maze. The water pressure in the reservoir is what's forcing the water to go up in these areas. At a certain point there's more water in the maze needing to be pushed up than there is in the reservoir pushing down, so the whole this stops flowing.
conanobrennan Aylar önce
I was think there's pressure from trapped air that can't escape once there's a reservoir above that it can't pass through.
Jeffris (Suspicious Manifold)
Oh wow, I hadn't thought of a maze being constructed of two pieces but that makes sense now that I've seen it and given what I remember about graphs. My mind went to bipartite graphs and partitions first, since there are no odd cycles. But then I realized I was overthinking it, there are no cycles at all, it's just a tree in this type of maze. Of course you can partition a tree into two disjoint sets. :)
Cosmic Space
Cosmic Space Aylar önce
It really fits my ocd to see water or any liquid go through any maze I love the video great keep the content up
ALottaMan Aylar önce
Could this approach be used to find the fastest route on a map between two points? What algorithms would it be better than? Which ones would it be worse than?
CM63 Aylar önce
Hi, Good points about the role of atmospheric pressure and surface tension. It should not be very difficult to take this into account in simulations as well.
T Aylar önce
5:40 True, if you only start using the 'hand on wall'-tactic as a backup plan, after you've already been in the maze for a while a multi-solution one can trap you. Doing so from the start will work (for any 2 dimensional maze, where 'out the other side' is the goal. Get to the centerpiece artwork (or staircase to the exit-tunnel), are made out of 1 piece and may loop you back to the entrance )
Anna NA
Anna NA Aylar önce
If you're able to mark the walls in any way at all, if you loop back to the same point on the wall, you are following a center wall that doesn't connect to the entrance or exit. Switch to the wall opposite and follow that one. If necessary, just keep mapping these interior walls until you get to a wall that leads to the entrance or exit. I follow walls all the time in games to fully explore areas and find places I've missed. If you're in a maze in real life and you fear you don't have all the time in the world to walk around--definitely find a way to mark your exploration or break yourself out of there.
E Aylar önce
YaboyNotNut Aylar önce
@E real
cj van
cj van Aylar önce
An effective way of applying the acrylic solvent to the maze and the second clear sheet would be a very fine layer in a level metal pan. Holding the already applied acrylic side, dip the maze portion into the pan. Immediately lift it up and apply a slide rotational swirl to remove any gathered droplets. Then move the it, still maze down onto the s wall already placed on the ground. A simple corner frame can be built-in utilize to make a quick into make sure it is square. It has to be removed from the thin layer of solvent and place on the other surface quickly without any torque. Light pressure, then give it a few. Largely depending on the solvent use to melt the acrylic, this is a very effective method.
Goten Aylar önce
You're an amazing dude. Very wise with a great head on your shoulders. Thank you for your video's. They're amazing and so are you.
7cle Aylar önce
I did enjoy this video. Very much. You are clearly now a 80000 hours expert on building acrylic models !
Massimo Zanetti
Massimo Zanetti Aylar önce
Funny thing about solving mazes with water, it can be easily done also horizontally (you placed the maze vertically and let the water flow from top to bottom). Think maze walls as hills, and corridors as the valleys in between, let the water rain into the maze.... and boom, water will flow out following the perfect solution path. This can be implemented easily on computer progam using the watershed algorithm.
Treblaine 24 gün önce
I think the realization that every maze is essentially two parts and the shortest-route-to-exit is always the point where the two halves meet is - itself - a solution were you ever actually inside a maze. All you'd need is some way to tell which wall was attached to one side of the maze and which wall is attached to the other side. Perhaps if the walls were conductive and were insulated by the ground/ceiling you could run a wire between each to know when you closed the circuit so know you've gone the wrong way.
macronencer Aylar önce
Love this! Mazes were "my thing" at school. We had exercise books with squared paper in them for maths, and I used to draw mazes all the time, so I became really familiar with a lot of stuff about them. The "stick to one wall" rule is a good window into some of them, as it makes you think about where the entrance and exit might be (could be in the middle), whether it still works with multiple entrances, whether there's a way to use it to escape a maze if you start in a random spot (there are algorithms that can eliminate dead ends as you go, but they require some sort of memory or external modification)... A third dimension also stirs things up. The maze at Longleat in England (which was the largest in Europe in the 1980s, not sure whether it still is) has six bridges that go over the hedge paths. This allows you to see some of the connectivity from above, which people imagine might help - but the presence of the bridges also makes the topology more sneaky and the maze harder. I LOVE MAZES! Cool to see your construction skills applied to them like this. Excellent video.
Chris aka Schulbus
Chris aka Schulbus Aylar önce
And now you could generate big mazes in minecraft and explore them in virtual reality... yes, the world is crazy like that today.
Nikel Sad
Nikel Sad Aylar önce
@Chris aka Schulbus do you mean a particular mod for mazes?
Chris aka Schulbus
Chris aka Schulbus Aylar önce
@Nikel Sad I made mazes with server plugins a couple years back. There are also "picture to schematic converters". So combining that with a normal image maze generator should also be possible. Particular mods or names i don't have, though. I only generate mazes for CNC laser action.
MünchhausenMusic Aylar önce
Dude, that sounds awesome!! I think one day I'll make this a birthday trip for my ex-girlfriend. She also loves everything logic-related. This christmas I gave her the hardest version of the Perplexus 3D labyrinth, she fucking loved it and tried cracking it for a over a whole day 😊 Have you heard of those? They are more about the motor skill to bring the ball through the maze. The hardest one is actually pretty hard! Thanks for the unintended present idea 😉
macronencer Aylar önce
@MünchhausenMusic You're welcome! Yes, I think I know the puzzle you're referring to. I don't have one but I think I've tried it once.
Blake 16 gün önce
I would love to see this done with smoke also, possible explain other aspects even more
USS Forbes
USS Forbes Aylar önce
Before I watch it, I want to make a guess at the reason for the larger version. I would guess that surface tension made the water get stuck eventually in the small version.
Spawnsy Aylar önce
Que pasaría si la salida del laberinto estuviera a un costado y no en la paredes de abajo del laberintos?... excelente experimento que explica a la perfección la densidad y la mecánica del agua
Xtermo Aylar önce
I think the sim would probably be best recreated if it was possible to fill the maze completely with water first, then fill the top tank with colored water and finally open the exit of the maze, although the flow would probably not be as energetic as in the simulation, having water in its way already. 🤔
Mike Aylar önce
Drilling small holes in each 'top' corner to allow air to escape may allow you to recreate the behaviour in the simulation more closely, though would need to be quite small to provide sufficient resistance to water flow
Nerfherder42 Aylar önce
This video actually made me realize that if you just try to visualize how the maze is in two pieces it becomes easier to solve visually. Pretty cool! I also think it works how a siphon works.
howard baxter
howard baxter Aylar önce
It’s also why if you keep going right, or keep going left, you will always solve the maze. Unless, of course, the maze is broken up into more than 2 parts.
howard baxter
howard baxter Aylar önce
Which, by the way, knowing such information is good for you in emergency situations. If you are ever in a building under evacuation and it is pitch black inside, put your hand up against the wall and follow it. You will eventually reach a door and/or window.
Sam Aylar önce
@howard baxter Yeah, but it might only be an internal door...
Michel Van Breugel
Michel Van Breugel Aylar önce
Regarding the effect of air pockets and surface tension. I think it is possible to minimize the effect of this, by angling the maze forward or backwards. This will reduce the height difference and allow the air pockets to pass the liquid by not utilizing the full channel width and or hight.
natsuhiboshi Aylar önce
What a cool video, thank you for making this!
Wild Child
Wild Child Aylar önce
3:38 those laser cuts for the solvent was genius
Alex Aylar önce
To this point, a maze that starts at the outside and ends in the center of the maze would only be found if the end was "surface-tension-lower" than the beginning, or maybe you could spin the maze like how you fill up a Klein bottle or something...
BlueCherry Aylar önce
imagine you get one of those mazes on the kids paper thing at a restaurant and you're like "hold on let me get the water"
Calvin Schubert
Calvin Schubert Aylar önce
I actually used this once in a dnd campaign. Our DM put us in a huge mirror maze room. Using a combination of a few magic items, I made a torrential downpour of water and we waited a minute before following the flow
Niek Aylar önce
That’s clever, love it!
Shining Darkness
Shining Darkness Aylar önce
How did you keep it from back-flowing out of the maze? I mean this method only really works because of the verticality of the maze making it so the water cannot simply flow back out of the entrance. You would likely need way more than a minute in order for the water to rise to the point where you could detect a flow is a big room. My solution to DM's throwing mazes at casters is always just fucking blow through it or use divination magic to scout the correct path, ain't nobody got time for that.
Seth B
Seth B Aylar önce
​@Shining Darkness I play as a ratfolk, so I have an unfair advantage
Shining Darkness
Shining Darkness Aylar önce
@Seth B how so?
Niek Aylar önce
@Shining Darkness Why wouldn't you exit through the entrance, as long as you get out right?
GigglySam Entz
GigglySam Entz Aylar önce
6:09 I thought the reservoir water was not heavy enough to push the water up the ledges. It only compresse the air a little
M.J. Nilsson
M.J. Nilsson Aylar önce
I tried to figure out in my head how would a laser behave if pointed into a maze made of mirrors, but I can't figure it out. Would the light have to eventually escape and would it help to guide you out with some added smoke?
Tikkel Bikkel
Tikkel Bikkel Aylar önce
What if the Bergman simulation is a bird's eye perspective of a maze with an open top that just being flooded?
toml 28 gün önce
It’s definitely a possibility, but I don’t think water would flow like that naturally. It would fill everything up at once instead of being moved by gravity downwards, and thus it would have to be slanted, but however this would cause it to not fill up the other parts. This is just a hypothesis tho so like it would be interesting to see if I’m correct
Austin Anderson
Austin Anderson 28 gün önce
Alpha Phoenix made a video showing that, it does fill everything but not like the sim
Could you make the begging of the maze airtight so that there's no where for the escaping airbubbles to go except through the end?
Nissan Karki
Nissan Karki Aylar önce
I love how straightforward the video was. Thank you for getting right to the point and not wandering around.
sonicpowerYAY Aylar önce
Unlike *_”cough”_* Vsause-
GrEll Aylar önce
You've scaled up one of the dimensions of the system without scaling any of the other relevant variables (viscocity, density, simulation time). Neat to see how the system changes from that one input. I'd be interested to see this run by scaling all of the relevant variables to keep the system's relevant dimensionless numbers the same (reynolds number, etc). Would make for a great fluid dynamics example. Smarter every day or veritasium did a video on a boat research that talks about this a little EDIT: It's veritasium's video at a naval wave generator
kar33m213 Aylar önce
Hi Steve, just a thought- what about using an incense candle that the smoke drops town.....would be interesting to see how turbanalce would effect the gas/liquid effect as its in motion
victor francio
victor francio Aylar önce
hey, in this test that you presented, the water is suffering the action of gravity and in this way air bubbles occur, you could try to see how it happens if the maze is horizontal, maybe the wather it will flow diferently! Love the video btw!
adam bamf
adam bamf 29 gün önce
its a good tool for showing aquifer water behavior it also replicates a concealed aquifer with the tank being a river stream or lake pretty cool
Sean Whitehall
Sean Whitehall 19 gün önce
6:15 I think it's also that you have vertical paths with no water now, those are parts with no down pressure push water up the other side.
Ligand Bind
Ligand Bind Aylar önce
Hey Steve, I do quite a bit of solved welding acrylic. For the second half you can do the dip soak method, where you 'soak' the acrylic in a thin puddle of solvent (such as in a custom HDPE or PTFE tray) and then clamp it to the 2nd clear acrylic part. Great video!
Steve Mould
Steve Mould Aylar önce
That’s basically what I did for the smaller ones! Question for you: is it a good idea to soak for a long time? I just dipped.
Ligand Bind
Ligand Bind Aylar önce
@Steve Mould Yes, you would want to soak the acrylic in the solvent to soften it, making it tacky so that when you make contact and clamp with the other piece of acrylic the two will bond in the same way that applying the solvent via capillary action does. Soak time will depend on a couple of different factors such as if the acrylic is cast vs extruded, if it has any colorants or co-polymers in it, and which solvent weld you are using (I am assuming you are probably using weld-on 3 or 4 or some other dichloromethane base solvent), and what clamping pressure you are using. You'll need to play around and find what works for you, but I would start with a 15 second soak and go from there. Since you are using lasercut acrylic, you'll need to be extra mindful of the acrylic crazing when you do this. You may need to anneal your parts before soaking, but I hope you can get away with not annealing since it can deform and change the dimensions of the part. The stresses in the crystalline lattice near the cut edge (the cause of crazing) are built up differently between laser cutters depending on the ambient temperatures, speed of the air assist, etc. If you are able to stop the cut edge from cooling as rapidly that will help with the crazing. The easiest way to do this is to lower the airflow of the air assist.
Justin Kay
Justin Kay Aylar önce
Could you recreate Bergman Jones algorithm by starting with clear water filling every path and then flowing colored water through it? Is the algorithm simulating the propagation of the coloring? Getting the water to fill every gap in the first place may be a challenge.